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A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM
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Dr. Jai Maharaj
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Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 73

PostPosted: Wed Jul 19, 2006 4:01 am    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

In article <YXPsg.332359$5Z.85158@dukeread02>,
"harmony" <aka@hotmail.com> posted:
Quote:

lucasea@sbcglobal.net> wrote in message
news:O%Dsg.46890$VE1.2354@newssvr14.news.prodigy.com...

"Howard Brazee" <howard@brazee.net> wrote in message
news:hhd5b25hihtdugkh95ahrj9mppe0gbni8o@4ax.com...
On Mon, 10 Jul 2006 20:00:58 GMT, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) wrote:

Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

But he doesn't cast significantly, and I suspect he uses forged (not
fake) irons.

I dunno, I'll bet he goes fishing quite frequently. But you're probably
right, he's probably not a fakir.

Eric Lucas


say what! hindus are vegetarians, hence wouldn't go fishing, would they?

WHY HINDUS DON'T EAT MEAT

Besides being an expression of compassion
for animals, vegetarianism is followed for
ecological and health rationales

REASONS

In the past fifty years, millions of meat-eaters --
Hindus and non-Hindus -- have made the personal decision
to stop eating the flesh of other creatures. There are
five major motivations for such a decision:

1. The Dharmic Law Reason

Ahinsa, the law of noninjury, is the Hindu's first
duty in fulfilling religious obligations to God and God's
creation as defined by Vedic scripture.

2. The Karmic Consequences Reason

All of our actions, including our choice of food,
have Karmic consequences. By involving oneself in the
cycle of inflicting injury, pain and death, even
indirectly by eating other creatures, one must in the
future experience in equal measure the suffering caused.

3. The Spiritual Reason

Food is the source of the body's chemistry, and what
we ingest affects our consciousnes, emotions and
experiential patterns. If one wants to live in higher
consciousness, in peace and happiness and love for all
creatures, then he cannot eat meat, fish, shellfish, fowl
or eggs. By ingesting the grosser chemistries of animal
foods, one introduces into the body and mind anger,
jealousy, anxiety, suspicion and a terrible fear of
death, all of which are locked into the the flesh of the
butchered creatures. For these reasons, vegetarians live
in higher consciousness and meat-eaters abide in lower
consciousness.

4. The Health Reason

Medical studies prove that a vegetarian diet is
easier to digest, provides a wider ranger of nutrients
and imposes fewer burdens and impurities on the body.
Vegetarians are less susceptible to all the major
diseases that afflict contemporary humanity, and thus
live longer, healthier, more productive lives. They have
fewer physical complaints, less frequent visits to the
doctor, fewer dental problems and smaller medical bills.
Their immune system is stronger, their bodies are purer,
more refined and skin more beautiful.

5. The Ecological Reason

Planet Earth is suffereing. In large measure, the
escalating loss of species, destruction of ancient
rainforests to create pasture lands for live stock, loss
of topsoils and the consequent increase of water
impurities and air pollution have all been traced to the
single fact of meat in the human diet. No decision that
we can make as individuals or as a race can have such a
dramatic effect on the improvement of our planetary
ecology as the decision not to eat meat.

HISTORY

The book FOOD FOR THE SPIRIT, VEGETARIANISM AND THE WORLD
RELIGIONS, observes, "Despite popular knowledge of meat-
eating's adverse effects, the nonvegetarian diet became
increasingly widespread among the Hindus after the two
major invasions by foreign powers, first the Muslims and
later the British. With them came the desire to be
'civilized,' to eat as did the Saheeb. Those atually
trained in Vedic knowledge, however, never adopted a
meat-oriented diet, and the pious Hindu still observes
vegetarian principles as a matter of religious duty.

"That vegetarianism has always been widespread in
India is clear from the earliest Vedic texts. This was
observed by the ancient traveler Megasthenes and also by
Fa-Hsien, a Chinese Buddhist monk who, in the fifth
century, traveled to India in order to obtain authentic
copies of the scriptures.

"These scriptures unambiguously support the meatless
way of life. In the MAHABHARAT, for instance, the great
warrior Bheeshm explains to Yuddhishtira, eldest of the
Paandav princes, that the meat of animals is like the
flesh of one's own son. Similarly, the MANUSMRITI
declares that one should 'refrain from eating all kinds
of meat,' for such eating involves killing and and leads
to Karmic bondage (Bandh) [5.49]. Elsewhere in the Vedic
literature, the last of the great Vedic kings, Maharaja
Parikshit, is quoted as saying that 'only the animal-
killer cannot relish the message of the Absolute Truth
[Shrimad Bhagvatam 10.1.4].'"

SCRIPTURE

He who desires to augment his own flesh by eating
the flesh of other creatures lives in misery in whatever
species he may take his birth.
MAHABHARAT 115.47

Those high-souled persons who desire beauty,
faultlessness of limbs, long life, understanding, mental
and physical strength and memory should abstain from acts
of injury. MAHABHARAT 18.115.8

The very name of cow is Aghnya ["not to be killed"],
indicating that they should never be slaughtered. Who,
then could slay them? Surely, one who kills a cow or a
bull commits a heinous crime. MAHABHARAT, SHANTIPARV
262.47

The purchaser of flesh performs Hinsa (violence) by
his wealth; he who eats flesh does so by enjoying its
taste; the killer does Hinsa by actually tying and
killing the animal. Thus, there are three forms of
killing: he who brings flesh or sends for it, he who cuts
off the limbs of an animal, and he who purchases, sells
or cooks flesh and eats it -- all of these are to be
considered meat-eaters. MAHABHARAT, ANU 115.40

He who sees that the Lord of all is ever the same
in all that is -- immortal in the field of mortality --
he sees the truth. And when a man sees that the God in
himself is the same God in all that is, he hurts not
himself by hurting others. Then he goes, indeed, to the
highest path. BHAGVAD GEETA 13.27-28

Ahinsa is the highest Dharm. Ahinsa is the best
Tapas. Ahinsa is the greatest gift. Ahinsa is the
highest self-control. Ahinsa is the highest sacrifice.
Ahinsa is the highest power. Ahinsa is the highest
friend. Ahinsa is the highest truth. Ahinsa is the
highest teaching. MAHABHARAT 18.116.37-41

What is the good way? It is the path that reflects
on how it may avoid killing any creature. TIRUKURAL 324

All that lives will press palms together in
prayerful adoration of those who refuse to slaughter and
savor meat. TIRUKURAL 260

What is virtuous conduct? It is never destroting
life, for killing leads to every other sin. TIRUKURAL
312, 321

Goodness is never one with the minds of these two:
one who wields a weapon and one who feasts on a
creature's flesh. TIRUKURAL 253

Copyright (C) 1993, Himalayan Academy, All Rights
Reserved. The information contained in this news report
may not be republished in any form without the prior
written authority of Himalayan Academy.
This is an authorized reproduction.


Vegetarianism: Recommended in Vedic Scripture

By Stephen Knapp
http://www.stephen-knapp.com

Many times there seems to be some confusion or lack of
clarity on whether the Vedic path condones or condemns
the eating of meat. Often times I hear Indians and
followers of the Vedic path explain that meat eating is
all right, that the Vedic shastras do not condemn it. Of
course, in this day and age meat eating includes and
supports the whole meat industry, which is the systematic
slaughter of thousands of animals on a daily basis. But
if we actually research the Vedic texts we will find that
there are numerous references in the various portions of
the Vedic literature which explain in no uncertain terms
the karmic dangers of meat-eating and unnecessary animal
slaughter. These indicate that meat eating should be
given up for one's spiritual and even material progress.
This means that the Vedic conclusions that some people
present for meat-eating are not accurate, and that they
have never studied their own religious books very
thoroughly. This is something that is important to
understand, so let us take a look.

VEDIC REFERENCES AGAINST MEAT-EATING AND ANIMAL SLAUGHTER

To start with, the Manu-samhita clearly and logically
recommends that, "Meat can never be obtained without
injury to living creatures, and injury to sentient beings
is detrimental to the attainment of heavenly bliss; let
him therefore shun the use of meat. Having well
considered the disgusting origin of flesh and the cruelty
of fettering and slaying corporeal beings, let him
entirely abstain from eating flesh." (Manu-samhita 5.48-
49)

However, it is not simply the person who eats the meat
that becomes implicated by eating the dead animal, but
also those who assist in the process. "He who permits the
slaughter of an animal, he who cuts it up, he who kills
it, he who buys or sells meat, he who cooks it, he who
serves it up, and he who eats it, must all be considered
as the slayers of the animal. There is no greater sinner
than that man who though not worshiping the gods or the
ancestors, seeks to increase the bulk of his own flesh by
the flesh of other beings." (Manu-samhita 5.51-52)

As we get further into the Manu-samhita, there are
warnings that become increasingly more serious. For
example, "If he has a strong desire (for meat) he may
make an animal of clarified butter or one of flour (and
eat that); but let him never seek to destroy an animal
without a (lawful) reason. As many hairs as the slain
beast has, so often indeed will he who killed it without
a (lawful) reason suffer a violent death in future
births." (Manu-samhita 5.37-38)

In this way, the only time to carry out the need to kill
animals for consumption is when there is an emergency
such as when there simply is nothing else to eat.
Otherwise, when there are plenty of grains, vegetables,
fruits, etc., to eat, it is only mankind's lust and
selfish desires that motivate one to kill other beings to
satisfy one's tongue by tasting their blood and flesh, or
to fatten one's wallet by making money from participating
in the distribution or the cooking of meat. Such violent
actions create opposite reactions. For this reason the
warnings are given, "He who injures harmless creatures
from a wish to give himself pleasure, never finds
happiness in this life or the next." (Manu-samhita 5.45)

'Nonetheless, there are also benefits that are mentioned
that a person can attain simply by not eating the bodies
of other creatures: "By subsisting on pure fruits and
roots, and by eating food fit for ascetics in the forest,
one does not gain so great a reward as by entirely
avoiding the use of flesh. Me he [mam sah] will devour in
the next world, whose flesh I eat in this life; the wise
declare this to be the real meaning of the word 'flesh'
[mam sah]." (Manu-samhita 5.54-55)

"He who does not seek to cause the sufferings of bonds
and death to living creatures, (but) desires the good of
all (beings), obtains endless bliss. He who does not
injure any (creature) attains without an effort what he
thinks of, what he undertakes, and what he fixes his mind
on." (Manu-samhita 5.46-47)

'Also, "By not killing any living being, one becomes fit
for salvation." (Manu-samhita 6.60)

'The earlier texts, such as the Rig-veda (10.87.16), also
proclaim the need to give up the eating of slaughtered
animals. "One who partakes of human flesh, the flesh of a
horse or of another animal, and deprives others of milk
by slaughtering cows, O King, if such a fiend does not
desist by other means, then you should not hesitate to
cut off his head."

'"You must not use your God-given body for killing God's
creatures, whether they are human, animal or whatever."
(Yajur Veda 12.32.90)

'There are also references in the Mahabharat that
forewarn the activity of eating flesh: "He who desires to
augment his own flesh by eating the flesh of other
creatures, lives in misery in whatever species he may
take his [next] birth." (Mahabharat, Anu.115.47)

'"The purchaser of flesh performs violence by his wealth;
he who eats flesh does so by enjoying its taste; the
killer does violence by actually tying and killing the
animal. Thus, there are three forms of killing. He who
brings flesh or sends for it, he who cuts off the limbs
of an animal, and he who purchases, sells, or cooks flesh
and eats it -- all these are to be considered meat-
eaters." (Mahabharat, Anu.115.40) All of these people
will also incur the same karmic reactions for their
participation in killing, distributing or eating the
flesh of animals, as explained next.

'"The sins generated by violence curtail the life of the
perpetrator. Therefore, even those who are anxious for
their own welfare should abstain from meat-eating."
(Mahabharat, Anu.115.33)

'"Those who are ignorant of real dharm and, though wicked
and haughty, account themselves virtuous, kill animals
without any feeling of remorse or fear of punishment.
Further, in their next lives, such sinful persons will be
eaten by the same creatures they have killed in this
world." (Bhagavat Puraan 11.5.14)

The following verses are from the Tirukural:

How can he practice true compassion who eats the flesh of
an animal to fatten his own flesh?

Riches cannot be found in the hands of the thriftless,
nor can compassion be found in the hearts of those who
eat meat.

He who feasts on a creature's flesh is like he who wields
a weapon. Goodness is never one with the minds of these
two.

If you ask, "What is kindness and what is unkindness?" It
is not-killing and killing. Thus, eating flesh is never
virtuous.

Life is perpetuated by not eating meat. The jaws of Hell
close on those who do.

If the world did not purchase and consume meat, no one
would slaughter and offer meat for sale.

When a man realizes that meat is the butchered flesh of
another creature, he will abstain from eating it.

Insightful souls who have abandoned the passion to hurt
others will not feed on flesh that life has abandoned.

Greater than a thousand ghee offerings consumed in
sacrificial fires is to not sacrifice and consume any
living creature.

All life will press palms together in prayerful adoration
of those who refuse to slaughter or savor meat.

-From these verses there should be no doubt that the
Vedic shastra recommends that such selfish meat-eating
must be given up if one has any concern for other living
beings, or one's own future existence, or for attaining
any spiritual merit.

'In Bhagavad-gita, however, we also find similar verses
on what is recommended for human consumption. Lord Krshn
says, "If one offers Me with love and devotion a leaf, a
flower, fruit or water, I will accept it." (Bg.9.26) This
means that not only should one be a vegetarian and eat
only fruits, water, grains, vegetables, etc., but such
items should be made as an offering to God with love. The
reason is that, "The devotees of the Lord are released
from all kinds of sins because they eat food which is
offered first for sacrifice. Others, who prepare food for
personal sense enjoyment, verily eat only sin." (Bg.3.13)
So what is offered are only those things that Krshn
accepts. That becomes prasada, or remnants of foods
offered to the Lord.

'As further elaborated in Bhagavad-gita by Lord Shri
Krshn: "O son of Kunti, all that you do, all that you
eat, all that you offer and give away, as well as all
austerities that you may perform, should be done as an
offering unto Me. In this way you will be freed from all
reactions to good and evil deeds, and by this principle
of renunciation you will be liberated and come to Me."
(Bg.9.27)

'Herein we can see that the process of preparing and
eating food is also a part of the Vedic system for making
spiritual advancement. As the Vedic literature explains,
what we eat is an important factor in the process of
purifying ourselves and remaining free from accumulating
bad karm. It actually is not so difficult to be
vegetarian, and it gives one a much higher taste in
eating and in one's spiritual realizations. The level of
our consciousness is also determined not only by what we
think and do, but also by the vibrational level of what
we put into our bodies as food. The more natural and
peaceful the food, the more healthy and peaceful will be
our consciousness. If it is further blessed and offered
to the Lord, then it becomes especially powerful and
spiritualized. This vibration goes into our own bodies
and is assimilated by our consciousness to assist us in
our spiritual upliftment. However, if we eat foods that
are the remnants of animals that were petrified with fear
before being slaughtered, or were tortured during the
slaughter process, that fear, aggression and suffering
will also become a part of our own consciousness, which
is reflected back on our own life and the people with
whom we come in contact. And people wonder why there is
not more peace in the world.

THE QUESTION OF WHETHER LORD RAAM ATE MEAT IN THE
RAMAYAAN

''Sometimes the idea comes up that the Ramayan indicates
that Lord Raam ate meat, especially while He was in exile
in the woods. However, there is no verse in Valmiki's
Ramayan that establishes that Lord Raam, Lakshman or Sita
ate meat while in or even out of exile. In fact, it seems
to show that He very much disliked the notion of eating
meat. The evidence for this is as follows: ''The verse
that comes in question in this regard in the Valmiki
Ramayan, Sundarakand, Skand 36, Shloke 41, says: "Na
mamsam Raghava bhunkte, na chaiva madhu sevate, Vanyam
suvihitam nityam bhaktamsnati panchamam."

''The literal translation of this verse is: "Shri Raam
does not take meat or honey. He partakes everyday of wild
fruits and boiled (wild) rice fully sanctioned (for an
ascetic) in the evening."

''Faulty English translations have put it as something
like this: Hanuman to Sita, "When you were away, Shri
Raam did not even take deer meat." This incorrectly
implies that Raam normally may have ate meat but did not
do so while Sita was away from Him.

''Now in this verse, the Sanskrit word bhunkte is a verb
that means strong desire for eating. It comes from the
Sanskrit bhaksha, which means voracious eating. When you
say Na bhunkte, as we see in the line that says "Na
mamsam Raghava bhunkte", it gives a complete negative
connotation, meaning that Lord Raam abhorred meat-eating.
On the other hand, if the words were "Na mamsam Raghavo
khadate", it could then mean that Raghava may have
engaged in meat eating before, but had stopped it at this
point. However, this is not what is said, but is where
some English translations present a similar confusion, or
are simply unclear about this issue. Nonetheless, by
analyzing the correct view of the proper translation, it
indicates clearly that the Valmiki Ramayan shows how Lord
Raam not only did not eat meat, but greatly disliked it.

THE PRINCIPLE OF BEING MERCIFUL

'Meat-eating and animal slaughter also disrupts and
disregards the doctrine of ahinsa, or non-violence. It is
not possible to kill animals for the pleasure of the
tongue without violence. The Padma Puraan (1.31.27)
simply says that, "Ahinsa is the highest duty."
Therefore, one must honestly ask themselves if they
intend to truly follow the Vedic tenets or not, at least
if they call themselves a Hindu, follower of Vedanta, or
a Sanatana-dharmist. If they are, then they must adopt
the ways of ahinsa.

'Ahinsa is more directly explained in Patanjali's Yoga
Sutras (2.30) wherein it is said: "Having no ill feeling
for any living being, in all manners possible and for all
times, is called ahinsa, and it should be the desired
goal of all seekers."

'It is also said in the Buddhist scripture, the
Mahaparinirvana Sutra, "The eating of meat extinguishes
the seed of great compassion."

'One of the principles that one must follow in the
endeavor to be free from acquiring bad karm and for
spiritual advancement is being merciful, based on ahinsa.
Mercy means more than just being nice. Mercy means being
kind to all living entities, not just to humans, but also
to animals, birds, insects, etc. This is because the
living entity, depending on its consciousness, can take a
material body in any one of the 8,400,000 species of
life. Therefore, to develop and maintain the quality of
mercy, one must follow the principle of no meat eating.
This includes no eating of meat, fish, eggs, or insects.
In this way, those who are serious about a spiritual path
remain free from so many unnecessary karmic reactions.
Karm means that for every action there is an opposite and
equal reaction. Killing an animal to eat is certainly an
act of violence that creates a negative reaction in the
atmosphere which returns as more violence. This comes
back to us as reversals in life which we must endure in
the future.

'It is bluntly stated that meat eating is actually the
grossest form of spiritual ignorance. To kill other
living entities for the pleasure of the tongue is a cruel
and selfish activity that requires one to be almost
completely blind to the spiritual reality of the living
being, that within the body is a soul like you, a part
and parcel of the Supreme Soul. It also causes one to
remain hard-hearted and less sensitive to the concern for
the wellbeing and feelings of others.

'As previously explained, according to the law of karm,
whatever pain we cause for others we will have to suffer
in the future. Therefore, a wise man does not even want
to harm an insect if possible, what to speak of
slaughtering an animal in order to taste its flesh and
blood. As explained in the Manu-samhita, the sinful
reaction for animal slaughter is received by six kinds of
participants, which include, (1) the killer of the
animal, (2) one who advocates or advertises meat-eating,
(3) one who transports the meat, (4) one who handles or
packages the meat, (5) one who prepares or cooks the
meat, and (6) one who eats it.

The sinful reaction shared by these six participants in
animal slaughter is serious. In fact, the Bible compares
the killing of cows to murdering a man: "He that killeth
an ox is as if he slew a man." (Isaiah 66.3) It is also
explained in the Shri Caitanya-caritamrita (Adi-lila,
Chapter 17, verse 166): "Cow killers are condemned to rot
in hellish life for as many thousands of years as there
are hairs on the body of the cow," which is also
referenced in the Manu-samhita. So an intelligent person
will try to avoid this fate.

'Some readers may say, however, that the sacrifices in
the early Vedic literature prescribed animal slaughter,
so for that reason it is all right to kill animals. But
such activities in this day and age are refuted by Shri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the Caitanya-caritamrita (Adi-
lila, Chapter 17, verses 159-165) which He explains to
the Chand Kazi who was a Muslim:

'"The Vedas clearly enjoin that cows should not be
killed. Therefore any Hindu, whoever he may be, does not
indulge in cow killing. In the Vedas and Puranas there
are injunctions declaring that if one can revive a living
being, he can kill it for experimental purposes [in the
ritual]. Therefore the great sages sometimes killed old
animals, and by chanting Vedic hymns they again brought
them to life for protection. The killing and rejuvenation
of such old and invalid animals was not truly killing but
an act of great benefit. Formerly there were great
powerful brahmanas who could make such experiments using
Vedic hymns, but now, because of Kali-yuga, brahmanas are
not so powerful. Therefore the killing of cows and bulls
for rejuvenation is forbidden. 'In this age of Kali, five
acts are forbidden: the offering of a horse in sacrifice,
the offering of a cow in sacrifice, the acceptance of the
[renounced] order of sannyasa, the offering of oblations
of flesh to the forefathers, and a man's begetting
children in his brother's wife.' Since you Mohammedans
[and others] cannot bring killed animals back to life,
you are responsible for killing them. Therefore you are
going to hell; there is no way for your deliverance."

'This quotation makes it perfectly clear how anyone who
participates in killing other living beings is
responsible for such acts which cause one to attain a
hellish future, or at the least, causes stifling of their
spiritual progress. We mentioned the karmic reactions for
killing the cow, but there are karmic results that one
acquires from killing other entities as well, which is to
suffer a similar pain or die in a similar way. Whatever
you do unto others will later return to you, either in
this life or in a future life. For every action there is
an equal and opposite reaction. That is the law of karm.

'We can now begin to understand how dark the future is
for someone who owns or manages something like a
hamburger or fried chicken stand. Not only is he
responsible for the animals that are killed, cooked, and
then sold by his business, but he is also responsible for
those he hires to help with it, and those who buy and eat
the dead animals. We can also begin to get an idea of the
dark collective karm of the population of a country whose
food habits are centered around the meat industry. The
violence that is generated by such a society certainly
cannot help but create adverse affects in the world.

THE BENEFIT FROM COWS

'The cow and bull are the prime targets of the meat
industry. However, cows and bulls are very important to
human civilization. Until the recent invention of the
tractor, the bull was used for helping to cultivate
fields for producing food, and the cow has always
supplied milk. A moderate supply of milk in our diet
provides the proper nutrients for developing a good brain
for understanding spiritual topics. Some sadhus in India
do not eat, but take only milk. From milk one can make
many other foods that are used in thousands of recipes
that we all appreciate, such as cheese or curd, yogurt,
kefir, butter, ghee, and so on. (However, this is not to
approve of the cruel and questionable practices of the
dairy industry as found in western countries.) This means
that, according to the Vedas, the cow is one of our
mothers and the bull is like a father for the benefit
they have done for society. To do outright harm to such
creatures is considered extremely serious. 'I have heard
Western people criticize India for not slaughtering its
cows, and talk about how there would be no more starving
children if they would just eat the cows. That is not the
cure. I have traveled all over India and have seen hungry
people there as well as in American cities, which is more
able to hide such problems. Homeless and hungry people
are found in every country. For another thing, cows are
one of India's greatest resources. They produce food,
fuel and power. Bullocks do as much as two-thirds of the
work on the average farm. They help plow the fields, hall
produce, and turn the presses. For India to convert to
machinery to do these tasks, especially in villages,
would cost as much as 20 to 30 billion dollars. For a
country like India, that is out of the question and a
waste of time and money.

'The cows also supply up to 800 tons of manure each year
for fuel. Cow dung gives a slow even heat, good for
cooking. Using coal for cooking would cost 1.5 billion
dollars a year. And besides, believe it or not, cow dung
kills bacteria and is antiseptic. And keeping cows is
cheap since they eat things like wheat stubble, husks,
and rice straw, which people cannot use.

'So why raise cattle for meat consumption when it takes
seven times more acreage for a pound of beef than a pound
of milk? Only four to sixteen pounds of flesh food is
produced for every hundred pounds of food eaten by
cattle. Ten to twenty tons of nutritive vegetable food
can be produced from the same amount of land that can
produce only one ton of beef. In one year, you can get
much more protein from a cow in the form of milk, cheese,
etc., than in the several years it takes for a cow to
mature enough to produce meat. To produce one pound of
wheat takes 25 gallons of water, whereas one pound of
beef requires 2500 gallons. And water is not always a
plentiful resource in countries like India. Obviously,
using agricultural resources for meat production is
nothing but wasteful.

'Furthermore, if we are so concerned about the starving
people in the world and the environment we live in, then
let us consider the fact that 60 million more people in
the world could be fed if Americans reduced their meat
consumption by only 10%. Plus, thousands of acres of
rainforest are lost every day in various countries, and
it is said that 50% of that is directly linked to raising
cattle for meat production. And though 76% of Americans
consider themselves concerned about the environment, only
2.8% are vegetarians (at the time of this writing). Many
Americans may say they love animals, but they still eat
them on a regular basis. Obviously, they need to raise
their consciousness about this. In any case, there are
many books on the market that present this type of
environmental information much more thoroughly.

''For those of you who would like to learn more about
what a vegetarian diet can do for you and how to cook
vegetarian meals easily, there are plenty of books
available to help you get started. Or check here on my
website for additional information and resources to get
started.

[This article available at: http://www.stephen-knapp.com ]

More at:
http://www.stephen-knapp.com/vegetarianism_recommended_in_Vedic_scripture.htm

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum
http://www.mantra.com/holocaust

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy
http://www.hindu.org
http://www.hindunet.org

The truth about Islam and Muslims
http://www.flex.com/~jai/satyamevajayate

The terrorist mission of Jesus stated in the Christian bible:

"Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not so send
peace, but a sword.
"For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the
daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in
law.
"And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.
- Matthew 10:34-36.

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post may not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the exemption for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name, current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by others are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the use of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational purposes by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the
copyright owner.

Since newsgroup posts are being removed
by forgery by one or more net terrorists,
this post may be reposted several times.
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Dr. Jai Maharaj
science forum addict


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 73

PostPosted: Wed Jul 19, 2006 3:58 am    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

In article <hhd5b25hihtdugkh95ahrj9mppe0gbni8o@4ax.com>,
Howard Brazee <howard@brazee.net> posted:

Quote:
Dr. Jai Maharaj posted:
Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

But he doesn't cast significantly, and I suspect he uses forged (not
fake) irons.

Graphite? Titanium? Bamboo?

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti
Back to top
me2
science forum beginner


Joined: 26 May 2006
Posts: 3

PostPosted: Tue Jul 11, 2006 7:00 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

harmony wrote:
Quote:
lucasea@sbcglobal.net> wrote ...

"Howard Brazee" <howard@brazee.net> wrote ...
On Mon, 10 Jul 2006 20:00:58 GMT, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) wrote:

Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

But he doesn't cast significantly, and I suspect he uses forged (not
fake) irons.

I dunno, I'll bet he goes fishing quite frequently. But you're probably
right, he's probably not a fakir.

Eric Lucas

say what! hindus are vegetarians, hence wouldn't go fishing, would they?

Say what? Most Hindus are non-vegetarian and fishing castes (eg. Meenavar in
Tamilnadu) are mostly Hindus.
Back to top
harmony
science forum beginner


Joined: 31 May 2005
Posts: 7

PostPosted: Tue Jul 11, 2006 4:00 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

<lucasea@sbcglobal.net> wrote in message
news:O%Dsg.46890$VE1.2354@newssvr14.news.prodigy.com...
Quote:

"Howard Brazee" <howard@brazee.net> wrote in message
news:hhd5b25hihtdugkh95ahrj9mppe0gbni8o@4ax.com...
On Mon, 10 Jul 2006 20:00:58 GMT, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) wrote:

Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

But he doesn't cast significantly, and I suspect he uses forged (not
fake) irons.

I dunno, I'll bet he goes fishing quite frequently. But you're probably
right, he's probably not a fakir.

Eric Lucas


say what! hindus are vegetarians, hence wouldn't go fishing, would they?
Back to top
<lucasea@sbcglobal.net
science forum addict


Joined: 25 Mar 2006
Posts: 94

PostPosted: Tue Jul 11, 2006 2:26 am    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

"Howard Brazee" <howard@brazee.net> wrote in message
news:hhd5b25hihtdugkh95ahrj9mppe0gbni8o@4ax.com...
Quote:
On Mon, 10 Jul 2006 20:00:58 GMT, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) wrote:

Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

But he doesn't cast significantly, and I suspect he uses forged (not
fake) irons.

I dunno, I'll bet he goes fishing quite frequently. But you're probably
right, he's probably not a fakir.

Eric Lucas
Back to top
Howard Brazee
science forum beginner


Joined: 14 Nov 2005
Posts: 2

PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 8:19 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

On Mon, 10 Jul 2006 20:00:58 GMT, usenet@mantra.com and/or
www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) wrote:

Quote:
Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

But he doesn't cast significantly, and I suspect he uses forged (not
fake) irons.
Back to top
Dr. Jai Maharaj
science forum addict


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 73

PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 8:08 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

As the world becomes more polluted and as space travel
becomes routine, humans and other species will so
evolve that they will be able to survive on less oxygen.
I suspect that people are already taking shorter and
fewer breaths per lifetime than before.

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <1152296759.660246.244440@m73g2000cwd.googlegroups.com>,
"Ian Parker" <ianparker2@gmail.com> posted:
Quote:
Intersting - Someone has stated at some point that the best way to
obtain oxygen for a lunar base is the electrolsis of titanium oxides
which proved to be abundant in the Apollo samples.

One word of warning - on Earth that is. Titanium to be useful has to be
very pure and be manufactured and worked in a vacuum or at any rate in
the absence of oxygen. On the Moon of course that is no problem.

As far as money for MIT is concerned. Yes at one level subsidy is
unfortunate, but all countries subsidize to some extent.
Back to top
Dr. Jai Maharaj
science forum addict


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 73

PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 8:00 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

Vijay Singh belongs to the driver, hitter and putter castes.

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <0%wrg.316666$5Z.264439@dukeread02>,
"harmony" <aka@hotmail.com> posted:
Quote:
why, thanks doc. love to help them lower caste hindu guys, to keep them away
from the beady eyed congressis.
golf players in usa are republicans. i would hope golf playing lower class
hindus too would vote for free trading bjp. what caste is vijay singh - and
other hindu golfers?


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

Believe me harmony ji, your ideas have
substance; that Paki escapee's don't.

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <8ZGig.221227$5Z.136810@dukeread02>,
"harmony" <aka@hotmail.com> posted:
habshi might have some idea about cheap golf balls like he does for
energy.
btw, the rich hindu golfers don't care for the lost balls, do they? like
india imports so many waste products from usa, such as waste paper, waste
plastic, waste steel etc, it might consdier used golf balls.
now, if you see the lower caste guys play golf in india, i hope i get
mentioned in the story.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

What would they use for golf balls, which would be expensive for them?

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <LQjig.221102$5Z.98323@dukeread02>,
"are we on same page?" <sayhello@hotmail.com> posted:
just what we needed - cheaper golf clubs.
now the backward castes in india can play golf too
without needing quota on the golf course.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM

Forwarded message

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

Using technology developed at MIT, 4-person startup
Avanti Metal hopes to reduce the cost of producing
Titanium from the current $40 per pound to a mere $3. The
article discusses how a special combinations of oxides
and electrolysis separates the titanium metal from the
Earth's abundant titanium oxide ore."

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

An MIT startup is hoping to make titanium much more
affordable. The benefit: lighter, more fuel-efficient
planes.

By Neil Savage

Titanium is as strong as steel, but weighs only about 60
percent as much. It's also highly resistant to corrosion,
and handles temperature extremes well. So, not
surprisingly, the aerospace industry wants to use much
more of it in the next generation of planes, making them
lighter and reducing fuel costs.

But there's a hitch: at around $40 per pound today,
titanium is expensive -- and the price keeps going up.

Now a startup, Avanti Metal, using technology developed
at MIT, hopes to commercialize a process that drastically
reduces the cost of producing titanium, making more of it
available for large, lighter-weight airplanes. The
process, developed by MIT chemist Donald Sadoway, applies
an environmentally benign, direct electrolysis method to
make the metal.

Titanium is naturally abundant. But processing titanium
oxide found in the ground to make a usable metal is slow
and produces toxic waste. "The price of titanium has gone
through the roof," says Corby Anderson, director of the
Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing
at the University of Montana. "It's double what it was
this time last year -- and last year it was pretty high."

Jeffrey Sabados, president of the four-person Avanti,
estimates that, based on production plans published by
Boeing and Airbus, there'll be a 30,000-ton shortage of
titanium by 2010. He claims that Avanti's process for
refining titanium could slash costs to about $3 per
pound. Then, if the metal then sells for even $25 per
pound, an estimate he calls conservative, it's a huge
potential profit.

Since the early 1950s, titanium has been produced through
the Kroll process. Manufacturers first make titanium
chloride, which gets processed into titanium
tetrachloride, and then mixed with magnesium, which draws
out the titanium and produces chlorine gas. The result is
a porous material, contaminated with magnesium salts,
which requires further processing to remove the salts and
make it usable for manufacturing. The process is so toxic
that it's difficult to get the permits needed to build a
new plant in order to expand production.

Sadoway says their process is much greener. They mix
titanium oxide with other oxides, such as magnesium oxide
or calcium oxide; then they heat the mixture to about
1,700 degrees Celsius. This produces a bath of molten
oxides, through which an electric current can be run. The
electricity produces electrolysis, breaking the bond
between the titanium and oxygen atoms, and the heavier
titanium sinks. The result is a pool of liquid titanium
at the bottom and oxygen bubbling out the top. The other
molten oxides remain in place, acting as the electrolyte
when more titanium oxide is added. "You just keep making
more and more and more metal," Sadoway says.

So far, though, Sadoway and colleagues have made only a
few grams with an experimental reactor cell. It's hard
for the small, ceramic device to sustain the high
temperature needed. Avanti is hoping to raise enough
money from investors to build a larger prototype to
actually produce a pool of liquid titanium. Sadoway hopes
to begin putting together a team of scientists by August
and to build working titanium smelters by August 2008.

Nabil Elkouh, president of Erigo Technologies, a
consulting firm that puts together deals between
researchers and investors, and who's an advisor to
Avanti, cautions that their projection of producing
titanium at one-tenth of the current cost, may be
optimistic at this point. "They may have something great,
but it may take four years," he says. "It may not ever be
one-tenth the cost -- but what if it were half the cost?
That'd still be great."

Anderson says plenty of people, from university
researchers to companies like DuPont, are working on
better ways to produce titanium. He hopes to visit MIT
this summer to look at Sadoway's process and see how well
it works.

http://www.techreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=16963

End of forwarded message

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum
http://www.mantra.com/holocaust

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy
http://www.hindu.org
http://www.hindunet.org

The truth about Islam and Muslims
http://www.flex.com/~jai/satyamevajayate

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the
educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post
may
not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion
of
the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the
exemption
for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name,
current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by
others
are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the
article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the
use
of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the
copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance
the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is
believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material
as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance
with
Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed
without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the
included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational
purposes
by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more
information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for
purposes
of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from
the
copyright owner.





Back to top
The Ghost In The Machine1
science forum Guru


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 1551

PostPosted: Sun Jul 09, 2006 4:13 am    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

On Fri, 07 Jul 2006 11:25:59 -0700, Ian Parker wrote:

Quote:
Intersting - Someone has stated at some point that the best way to obtain
oxygen for a lunar base is the electrolsis of titanium oxides which proved
to be abundant in the Apollo samples.

One word of warning - on Earth that is. Titanium to be useful has to be
very pure and be manufactured and worked in a vacuum or at any rate in the
absence of oxygen. On the Moon of course that is no problem.

As far as money for MIT is concerned. Yes at one level subsidy is
unfortunate, but all countries subsidize to some extent.

Dumb question:

The Lunar vacuum is very good (3 * 10^-10 Pascal) and better than all
(current and most likely future) Earthly attempts at a vacuum, but is it
good enough?

Also, are there issues if Titanium is worked in, say, nitrogen or helium?

--
#191, ewill3@earthlink.net
It's still legal to go .sigless.
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Ian Parker
science forum Guru Wannabe


Joined: 15 Jul 2005
Posts: 100

PostPosted: Fri Jul 07, 2006 6:25 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

Intersting - Someone has stated at some point that the best way to
obtain oxygen for a lunar base is the electrolsis of titanium oxides
which proved to be abundant in the Apollo samples.

One word of warning - on Earth that is. Titanium to be useful has to be
very pure and be manufactured and worked in a vacuum or at any rate in
the absence of oxygen. On the Moon of course that is no problem.

As far as money for MIT is concerned. Yes at one level subsidy is
unfortunate, but all countries subsidize to some extent.
Back to top
harmony
science forum beginner


Joined: 31 May 2005
Posts: 7

PostPosted: Fri Jul 07, 2006 5:37 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

why, thanks doc. love to help them lower caste hindu guys, to keep them away
from the beady eyed congressis.
golf players in usa are republicans. i would hope golf playing lower class
hindus too would vote for free trading bjp. what caste is vijay singh - and
other hindu golfers?


<usenet@mantra.com4Zp25M or www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj)> wrote in
message news:20060611X3eQ1AGcg04Zp25M8gJ9cdJ@Pp9Pw...
Quote:
Believe me harmony ji, your ideashave
substance; that Paki escapee's don't.

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <8ZGig.221227$5Z.136810@dukeread02>,
"harmony" <aka@hotmail.com> posted:
habshi might have some idea about cheap golf balls like he does for
energy.
btw, the rich hindu golfers don't care for the lost balls, do they? like
india imports so many waste products from usa, such as waste paper, waste
plastic, waste steel etc, it might consdier used golf balls.
now, if you see the lower caste guys play golf in india, i hope i get
mentioned in the story.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

What would they use for golf balls, which would be expensive for them?

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <LQjig.221102$5Z.98323@dukeread02>,
"are we on same page?" <sayhello@hotmail.com> posted:
just what we needed - cheaper golf clubs.
now the backward castes in india can play golf too
without needing quota on the golf course.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM

Forwarded message

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

Using technology developed at MIT, 4-person startup
Avanti Metal hopes to reduce the cost of producing
Titanium from the current $40 per pound to a mere $3. The
article discusses how a special combinations of oxides
and electrolysis separates the titanium metal from the
Earth's abundant titanium oxide ore."

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

An MIT startup is hoping to make titanium much more
affordable. The benefit: lighter, more fuel-efficient
planes.

By Neil Savage

Titanium is as strong as steel, but weighs only about 60
percent as much. It's also highly resistant to corrosion,
and handles temperature extremes well. So, not
surprisingly, the aerospace industry wants to use much
more of it in the next generation of planes, making them
lighter and reducing fuel costs.

But there's a hitch: at around $40 per pound today,
titanium is expensive -- and the price keeps going up.

Now a startup, Avanti Metal, using technology developed
at MIT, hopes to commercialize a process that drastically
reduces the cost of producing titanium, making more of it
available for large, lighter-weight airplanes. The
process, developed by MIT chemist Donald Sadoway, applies
an environmentally benign, direct electrolysis method to
make the metal.

Titanium is naturally abundant. But processing titanium
oxide found in the ground to make a usable metal is slow
and produces toxic waste. "The price of titanium has gone
through the roof," says Corby Anderson, director of the
Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing
at the University of Montana. "It's double what it was
this time last year -- and last year it was pretty high."

Jeffrey Sabados, president of the four-person Avanti,
estimates that, based on production plans published by
Boeing and Airbus, there'll be a 30,000-ton shortage of
titanium by 2010. He claims that Avanti's process for
refining titanium could slash costs to about $3 per
pound. Then, if the metal then sells for even $25 per
pound, an estimate he calls conservative, it's a huge
potential profit.

Since the early 1950s, titanium has been produced through
the Kroll process. Manufacturers first make titanium
chloride, which gets processed into titanium
tetrachloride, and then mixed with magnesium, which draws
out the titanium and produces chlorine gas. The result is
a porous material, contaminated with magnesium salts,
which requires further processing to remove the salts and
make it usable for manufacturing. The process is so toxic
that it's difficult to get the permits needed to build a
new plant in order to expand production.

Sadoway says their process is much greener. They mix
titanium oxide with other oxides, such as magnesium oxide
or calcium oxide; then they heat the mixture to about
1,700 degrees Celsius. This produces a bath of molten
oxides, through which an electric current can be run. The
electricity produces electrolysis, breaking the bond
between the titanium and oxygen atoms, and the heavier
titanium sinks. The result is a pool of liquid titanium
at the bottom and oxygen bubbling out the top. The other
molten oxides remain in place, acting as the electrolyte
when more titanium oxide is added. "You just keep making
more and more and more metal," Sadoway says.

So far, though, Sadoway and colleagues have made only a
few grams with an experimental reactor cell. It's hard
for the small, ceramic device to sustain the high
temperature needed. Avanti is hoping to raise enough
money from investors to build a larger prototype to
actually produce a pool of liquid titanium. Sadoway hopes
to begin putting together a team of scientists by August
and to build working titanium smelters by August 2008.

Nabil Elkouh, president of Erigo Technologies, a
consulting firm that puts together deals between
researchers and investors, and who's an advisor to
Avanti, cautions that their projection of producing
titanium at one-tenth of the current cost, may be
optimistic at this point. "They may have something great,
but it may take four years," he says. "It may not ever be
one-tenth the cost -- but what if it were half the cost?
That'd still be great."

Anderson says plenty of people, from university
researchers to companies like DuPont, are working on
better ways to produce titanium. He hopes to visit MIT
this summer to look at Sadoway's process and see how well
it works.

http://www.techreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=16963

End of forwarded message

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum
http://www.mantra.com/holocaust

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy
http://www.hindu.org
http://www.hindunet.org

The truth about Islam and Muslims
http://www.flex.com/~jai/satyamevajayate

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the
educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post
may
not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion
of
the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the
exemption
for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name,
current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by
others
are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the
article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the
use
of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the
copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance
the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is
believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material
as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance
with
Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed
without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the
included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational
purposes
by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more
information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for
purposes
of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from
the
copyright owner.



Back to top
Dr. Jai Maharaj
science forum addict


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 73

PostPosted: Sun Jun 11, 2006 10:28 am    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

Believe me harmony ji, your ideashave
substance; that Paki escapee's don't.

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <8ZGig.221227$5Z.136810@dukeread02>,
"harmony" <aka@hotmail.com> posted:
Quote:
habshi might have some idea about cheap golf balls like he does for energy.
btw, the rich hindu golfers don't care for the lost balls, do they? like
india imports so many waste products from usa, such as waste paper, waste
plastic, waste steel etc, it might consdier used golf balls.
now, if you see the lower caste guys play golf in india, i hope i get
mentioned in the story.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

What would they use for golf balls, which would be expensive for them?

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <LQjig.221102$5Z.98323@dukeread02>,
"are we on same page?" <sayhello@hotmail.com> posted:
just what we needed - cheaper golf clubs.
now the backward castes in india can play golf too
without needing quota on the golf course.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM

Forwarded message

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

Using technology developed at MIT, 4-person startup
Avanti Metal hopes to reduce the cost of producing
Titanium from the current $40 per pound to a mere $3. The
article discusses how a special combinations of oxides
and electrolysis separates the titanium metal from the
Earth's abundant titanium oxide ore."

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

An MIT startup is hoping to make titanium much more
affordable. The benefit: lighter, more fuel-efficient
planes.

By Neil Savage

Titanium is as strong as steel, but weighs only about 60
percent as much. It's also highly resistant to corrosion,
and handles temperature extremes well. So, not
surprisingly, the aerospace industry wants to use much
more of it in the next generation of planes, making them
lighter and reducing fuel costs.

But there's a hitch: at around $40 per pound today,
titanium is expensive -- and the price keeps going up.

Now a startup, Avanti Metal, using technology developed
at MIT, hopes to commercialize a process that drastically
reduces the cost of producing titanium, making more of it
available for large, lighter-weight airplanes. The
process, developed by MIT chemist Donald Sadoway, applies
an environmentally benign, direct electrolysis method to
make the metal.

Titanium is naturally abundant. But processing titanium
oxide found in the ground to make a usable metal is slow
and produces toxic waste. "The price of titanium has gone
through the roof," says Corby Anderson, director of the
Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing
at the University of Montana. "It's double what it was
this time last year -- and last year it was pretty high."

Jeffrey Sabados, president of the four-person Avanti,
estimates that, based on production plans published by
Boeing and Airbus, there'll be a 30,000-ton shortage of
titanium by 2010. He claims that Avanti's process for
refining titanium could slash costs to about $3 per
pound. Then, if the metal then sells for even $25 per
pound, an estimate he calls conservative, it's a huge
potential profit.

Since the early 1950s, titanium has been produced through
the Kroll process. Manufacturers first make titanium
chloride, which gets processed into titanium
tetrachloride, and then mixed with magnesium, which draws
out the titanium and produces chlorine gas. The result is
a porous material, contaminated with magnesium salts,
which requires further processing to remove the salts and
make it usable for manufacturing. The process is so toxic
that it's difficult to get the permits needed to build a
new plant in order to expand production.

Sadoway says their process is much greener. They mix
titanium oxide with other oxides, such as magnesium oxide
or calcium oxide; then they heat the mixture to about
1,700 degrees Celsius. This produces a bath of molten
oxides, through which an electric current can be run. The
electricity produces electrolysis, breaking the bond
between the titanium and oxygen atoms, and the heavier
titanium sinks. The result is a pool of liquid titanium
at the bottom and oxygen bubbling out the top. The other
molten oxides remain in place, acting as the electrolyte
when more titanium oxide is added. "You just keep making
more and more and more metal," Sadoway says.

So far, though, Sadoway and colleagues have made only a
few grams with an experimental reactor cell. It's hard
for the small, ceramic device to sustain the high
temperature needed. Avanti is hoping to raise enough
money from investors to build a larger prototype to
actually produce a pool of liquid titanium. Sadoway hopes
to begin putting together a team of scientists by August
and to build working titanium smelters by August 2008.

Nabil Elkouh, president of Erigo Technologies, a
consulting firm that puts together deals between
researchers and investors, and who's an advisor to
Avanti, cautions that their projection of producing
titanium at one-tenth of the current cost, may be
optimistic at this point. "They may have something great,
but it may take four years," he says. "It may not ever be
one-tenth the cost -- but what if it were half the cost?
That'd still be great."

Anderson says plenty of people, from university
researchers to companies like DuPont, are working on
better ways to produce titanium. He hopes to visit MIT
this summer to look at Sadoway's process and see how well
it works.

http://www.techreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=16963

End of forwarded message

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum
http://www.mantra.com/holocaust

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy
http://www.hindu.org
http://www.hindunet.org

The truth about Islam and Muslims
http://www.flex.com/~jai/satyamevajayate

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the
educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post may
not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion of
the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the exemption
for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name,
current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by others
are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the
article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the use
of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is
believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with
Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the
included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational purposes
by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more
information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes
of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the
copyright owner.



Back to top
harmony
science forum beginner


Joined: 31 May 2005
Posts: 7

PostPosted: Sat Jun 10, 2006 9:38 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

habshi might have some idea about cheap golf balls like he does for energy.
btw, the rich hindu golfers don't care for the lost balls, do they? like
india imports so many waste products from usa, such as waste paper, waste
plastic, waste steel etc, it might consdier used golf balls.
now, if you see the lower caste guys play golf in india, i hope i get
mentioned in the story.


<usenet@mantra.comNAFht99 or www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj)> wrote in
message news:20060609SrdG881s7IANAFht99FCtat@NCdq0...
Quote:
What would they use for golf balls, which would be expensive for them?

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <LQjig.221102$5Z.98323@dukeread02>,
"are we on same page?" <sayhello@hotmail.com> posted:
just what we needed - cheaper golf clubs.
now the backward castes in india can play golf too
without needing quota on the golf course.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM

Forwarded message

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

Using technology developed at MIT, 4-person startup
Avanti Metal hopes to reduce the cost of producing
Titanium from the current $40 per pound to a mere $3. The
article discusses how a special combinations of oxides
and electrolysis separates the titanium metal from the
Earth's abundant titanium oxide ore."

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

An MIT startup is hoping to make titanium much more
affordable. The benefit: lighter, more fuel-efficient
planes.

By Neil Savage

Titanium is as strong as steel, but weighs only about 60
percent as much. It's also highly resistant to corrosion,
and handles temperature extremes well. So, not
surprisingly, the aerospace industry wants to use much
more of it in the next generation of planes, making them
lighter and reducing fuel costs.

But there's a hitch: at around $40 per pound today,
titanium is expensive -- and the price keeps going up.

Now a startup, Avanti Metal, using technology developed
at MIT, hopes to commercialize a process that drastically
reduces the cost of producing titanium, making more of it
available for large, lighter-weight airplanes. The
process, developed by MIT chemist Donald Sadoway, applies
an environmentally benign, direct electrolysis method to
make the metal.

Titanium is naturally abundant. But processing titanium
oxide found in the ground to make a usable metal is slow
and produces toxic waste. "The price of titanium has gone
through the roof," says Corby Anderson, director of the
Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing
at the University of Montana. "It's double what it was
this time last year -- and last year it was pretty high."

Jeffrey Sabados, president of the four-person Avanti,
estimates that, based on production plans published by
Boeing and Airbus, there'll be a 30,000-ton shortage of
titanium by 2010. He claims that Avanti's process for
refining titanium could slash costs to about $3 per
pound. Then, if the metal then sells for even $25 per
pound, an estimate he calls conservative, it's a huge
potential profit.

Since the early 1950s, titanium has been produced through
the Kroll process. Manufacturers first make titanium
chloride, which gets processed into titanium
tetrachloride, and then mixed with magnesium, which draws
out the titanium and produces chlorine gas. The result is
a porous material, contaminated with magnesium salts,
which requires further processing to remove the salts and
make it usable for manufacturing. The process is so toxic
that it's difficult to get the permits needed to build a
new plant in order to expand production.

Sadoway says their process is much greener. They mix
titanium oxide with other oxides, such as magnesium oxide
or calcium oxide; then they heat the mixture to about
1,700 degrees Celsius. This produces a bath of molten
oxides, through which an electric current can be run. The
electricity produces electrolysis, breaking the bond
between the titanium and oxygen atoms, and the heavier
titanium sinks. The result is a pool of liquid titanium
at the bottom and oxygen bubbling out the top. The other
molten oxides remain in place, acting as the electrolyte
when more titanium oxide is added. "You just keep making
more and more and more metal," Sadoway says.

So far, though, Sadoway and colleagues have made only a
few grams with an experimental reactor cell. It's hard
for the small, ceramic device to sustain the high
temperature needed. Avanti is hoping to raise enough
money from investors to build a larger prototype to
actually produce a pool of liquid titanium. Sadoway hopes
to begin putting together a team of scientists by August
and to build working titanium smelters by August 2008.

Nabil Elkouh, president of Erigo Technologies, a
consulting firm that puts together deals between
researchers and investors, and who's an advisor to
Avanti, cautions that their projection of producing
titanium at one-tenth of the current cost, may be
optimistic at this point. "They may have something great,
but it may take four years," he says. "It may not ever be
one-tenth the cost -- but what if it were half the cost?
That'd still be great."

Anderson says plenty of people, from university
researchers to companies like DuPont, are working on
better ways to produce titanium. He hopes to visit MIT
this summer to look at Sadoway's process and see how well
it works.

http://www.techreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=16963

End of forwarded message

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum
http://www.mantra.com/holocaust

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy
http://www.hindu.org
http://www.hindunet.org

The truth about Islam and Muslims
http://www.flex.com/~jai/satyamevajayate

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the
educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post may
not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion of
the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the exemption
for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name,
current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by others
are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the
article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the use
of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is
believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with
Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the
included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational purposes
by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more
information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes
of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the
copyright owner.

Back to top
Dr. Jai Maharaj
science forum addict


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 73

PostPosted: Sat Jun 10, 2006 3:00 am    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

What would they use for golf balls, which would be expensive for them?

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

In article <LQjig.221102$5Z.98323@dukeread02>,
"are we on same page?" <sayhello@hotmail.com> posted:
Quote:
just what we needed - cheaper golf clubs.
now the backward castes in india can play golf too
without needing quota on the golf course.


www.mantra.com/jai (Dr. Jai Maharaj) posted:

A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM

Forwarded message

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

Using technology developed at MIT, 4-person startup
Avanti Metal hopes to reduce the cost of producing
Titanium from the current $40 per pound to a mere $3. The
article discusses how a special combinations of oxides
and electrolysis separates the titanium metal from the
Earth's abundant titanium oxide ore."

A Cleaner, Cheaper Route to Titanium

An MIT startup is hoping to make titanium much more
affordable. The benefit: lighter, more fuel-efficient
planes.

By Neil Savage

Titanium is as strong as steel, but weighs only about 60
percent as much. It's also highly resistant to corrosion,
and handles temperature extremes well. So, not
surprisingly, the aerospace industry wants to use much
more of it in the next generation of planes, making them
lighter and reducing fuel costs.

But there's a hitch: at around $40 per pound today,
titanium is expensive -- and the price keeps going up.

Now a startup, Avanti Metal, using technology developed
at MIT, hopes to commercialize a process that drastically
reduces the cost of producing titanium, making more of it
available for large, lighter-weight airplanes. The
process, developed by MIT chemist Donald Sadoway, applies
an environmentally benign, direct electrolysis method to
make the metal.

Titanium is naturally abundant. But processing titanium
oxide found in the ground to make a usable metal is slow
and produces toxic waste. "The price of titanium has gone
through the roof," says Corby Anderson, director of the
Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing
at the University of Montana. "It's double what it was
this time last year -- and last year it was pretty high."

Jeffrey Sabados, president of the four-person Avanti,
estimates that, based on production plans published by
Boeing and Airbus, there'll be a 30,000-ton shortage of
titanium by 2010. He claims that Avanti's process for
refining titanium could slash costs to about $3 per
pound. Then, if the metal then sells for even $25 per
pound, an estimate he calls conservative, it's a huge
potential profit.

Since the early 1950s, titanium has been produced through
the Kroll process. Manufacturers first make titanium
chloride, which gets processed into titanium
tetrachloride, and then mixed with magnesium, which draws
out the titanium and produces chlorine gas. The result is
a porous material, contaminated with magnesium salts,
which requires further processing to remove the salts and
make it usable for manufacturing. The process is so toxic
that it's difficult to get the permits needed to build a
new plant in order to expand production.

Sadoway says their process is much greener. They mix
titanium oxide with other oxides, such as magnesium oxide
or calcium oxide; then they heat the mixture to about
1,700 degrees Celsius. This produces a bath of molten
oxides, through which an electric current can be run. The
electricity produces electrolysis, breaking the bond
between the titanium and oxygen atoms, and the heavier
titanium sinks. The result is a pool of liquid titanium
at the bottom and oxygen bubbling out the top. The other
molten oxides remain in place, acting as the electrolyte
when more titanium oxide is added. "You just keep making
more and more and more metal," Sadoway says.

So far, though, Sadoway and colleagues have made only a
few grams with an experimental reactor cell. It's hard
for the small, ceramic device to sustain the high
temperature needed. Avanti is hoping to raise enough
money from investors to build a larger prototype to
actually produce a pool of liquid titanium. Sadoway hopes
to begin putting together a team of scientists by August
and to build working titanium smelters by August 2008.

Nabil Elkouh, president of Erigo Technologies, a
consulting firm that puts together deals between
researchers and investors, and who's an advisor to
Avanti, cautions that their projection of producing
titanium at one-tenth of the current cost, may be
optimistic at this point. "They may have something great,
but it may take four years," he says. "It may not ever be
one-tenth the cost -- but what if it were half the cost?
That'd still be great."

Anderson says plenty of people, from university
researchers to companies like DuPont, are working on
better ways to produce titanium. He hopes to visit MIT
this summer to look at Sadoway's process and see how well
it works.

http://www.techreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=16963

End of forwarded message

Jai Maharaj
http://tinyurl.com/a5ljc
http://www.mantra.com/jai
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum
http://www.mantra.com/holocaust

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy
http://www.hindu.org
http://www.hindunet.org

The truth about Islam and Muslims
http://www.flex.com/~jai/satyamevajayate

o Not for commercial use. Solely to be fairly used for the
educational
purposes of research and open discussion. The contents of this post may
not
have been authored by, and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the
poster. The contents are protected by copyright law and the exemption for
fair use of copyrighted works.
o If you send private e-mail to me, it will likely not be read,
considered or answered if it does not contain your full legal name,
current
e-mail and postal addresses, and live-voice telephone number.
o Posted for information and discussion. Views expressed by others
are
not necessarily those of the poster who may or may not have read the
article.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This article may contain copyrighted material the use of
which may or may not have been specifically authorized by the copyright
owner. This material is being made available in efforts to advance the
understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic,
democratic, scientific, social, and cultural, etc., issues. It is believed
that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with
Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the
included
information for research, comment, discussion and educational purposes by
subscribing to USENET newsgroups or visiting web sites. For more
information
go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of
your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the
copyright owner.

Back to top
Marcus Aurelius
science forum beginner


Joined: 09 Jun 2006
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Fri Jun 09, 2006 7:50 pm    Post subject: Re: A CLEANER, CHEAPER ROUTE TO TITANIUM Reply with quote

I suppose a thermite type reaction wouldn't work for TiO2?

Adi Anant

Bret Cahill wrote:
Quote:
It's pretty sad when the federal government underfunds MIT to develop a
strategic metal.

So far, though, Sadoway and colleagues have made only a

few grams with an experimental reactor cell. It's hard

for the small, ceramic device to sustain the high

temperature needed. Avanti is hoping to raise enough

money from investors to build a larger prototype to

actually produce a pool of liquid titanium.


Bret Cahill
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