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reactivity of esters
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N:dlzc D:aol T:com (dlzc)
science forum Guru


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 2835

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 2:17 am    Post subject: Re: Why is water clearer near the equator? Reply with quote

Quote:
When I see ocean water in Ocean City Maryland, it's
dark brown-green. When I went to Cancun Mexico,
it's clear blue-green. Whenever I see pictures of
vacation spots near the equator, they always have
nice clear blue-green water. Why?

I think it has been nailed with:
- warmer (lower gas solubility, including CO2)
- lack of nutrients to support algae growth

David A. Smith
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N:dlzc D:aol T:com (dlzc)
science forum Guru


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 2835

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 2:30 am    Post subject: Re: Mars like robots to SpaceStation to replenish ozone layer Re: Ice-dust + ozone replenishment as 2 solutions run in tandem to solve global warming Re: Antarctica-IceDust Reply with quote

Dear Archimedes Plutonium:

"Archimedes Plutonium" <a_plutonium@iw.net> wrote in message
news:42408440.7C1026CD@iw.net...
Quote:


"N:dlzc D:aol T:com (dlzc)" wrote:

Dear Archimedes Plutonium:

"Archimedes Plutonium" <a_plutonium@iw.net> wrote in message
news:423FB980.EFCA5C74@iw.net...
...
Then the other solution in tandem is the addition
of vast amounts of ozone into the upper atmosphere.
The ozone absorbs UV energy and re-emits into
outer space so that the energy does not hit ground
and heat up Earth.

No. Ozone absorbs UV and dissociates in oxygen
and monatomic oxygen.

Yes, thanks for the correction, for I was tongue-tied,
mind-tied, plus typing-tied. I simply wanted to say
that the Ice Dust reflects and the Ozone absorbs
sunlight to cool Earth. Yes the Ozone cycle in the
stratosphere for the temperature rise called the
StratoPause. The ozone is crucial to this
temperature layer at 50 km otherwise the heat
would reach Earth.

I disagree. If anything, ozone as a three atom molecule would be
slightly more likey to be an "insulating blanket", to very
slightly retard radiation of heat into space.

Quote:
David, can you tell us how much of the Global
Warming at present is due to the destruction of
the Ozone layer to date. A rough percentage??

0%.

Quote:
It is the fact of 2 methods, one of reflection and
one of absorption that is paramount to making a
Air Conditioner. I would like both methods
employed simultaneously.

So I want an ozone enrichment and I want a Ice
Dust shield reflector.

Neither are required. Both can be accomplished on *this* side of
space.

Quote:
...
But can we produce ozone on the ground and
package it and then cargo haul it to the space
station to distribute?

No. It is explosive (self-decomposes), and your
"cargo hauler" will either consume the oxygen
necessary for Earth to make her own, or seed
the atmosphere with moisture which will in itself
drastically curtail Earth's ability to make ozone.
One pathway to the production of ozone is
temporary acceptance of a monatomic oxygen
onto a nitrogen gas molecule, which with the
presence of visible light. Water makes this
N2O* into a stable compound. Additionally,
ozone, even at liquid ozone temperatures, has
a half-life of about a week.

Yes, I think a nitrogen-oxygen compound is
the better bet to cargo haul to begin to build
back up the depleted ozone. And then to make
more ozone then ever before to counterbalance
rising GlobalWarming.

Just don't deliver more moisture to altitude than necessary.
Natural ozone production is hindered by such. And ozone will
have a very slight effect of increasing warming.

....
Quote:
Not sure if those particles will interfer in a big
way with the stations kinetics as it collides with ice
dust particles.

Yes it would. You can't just "release them", since
they stay in orbit with the ISS. You have to alter
their momentum, to let them fall into a "lower orbit".
Now you need some sort of thruster.

Well we have to determine where to release the
Ice-Dust. Once we do that we can then engineer
a robot similar to the Mars robot of 2004 that was
so successful to deliver the Ice-Dust in a
prescribed orbit around Earth sing the Space
Station as a home base for the robots.

Not necessary. Such can be (and is) accomplished this side of
space.

....
Quote:
But I still think we should replenish ozone

We shouldn't. Nature can do it herself, if we
will leave her to it.

You are off-base and out of tune with reality.

Rather than dignify your villification with a response, I suggest
you review your very lengthy list of *assumptions*. Most of them
are bogus.
- Ice Dust (R) is not necessary. Contrails can do this job much
cheaper.
- Ozone replenishment can be achieved by NOT delivering moisture
to high altitude, and not consuming oxygen at high altitude. It
takes days, if not weeks to get oxygen back to where commercial
traffic flys.
- Ozone is a greenhouse gas (as if that means a whole lot).

Goodbye.
<plonk>

David A. Smith
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Farooq W
science forum Guru Wannabe


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 240

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 4:01 am    Post subject: Re: Antonoff's Rule: Where did George Antonoff serve last? Reply with quote

Art Ickles wrote:
Quote:
I don't know who you asked for the reprints, but you should
try to contact the University Archivist (or whatever they
call that person) at Fordham.

Found it:
http://www.library.fordham.edu/archives/archiveinformation.html

"Archives -The repository for University records from 1841 to
present; ..."

Contact Information:
Patrice Kane, Head of Archives and Special Collections

Vivian Shen, Preservation and Conservation Librarian

Maybe Patrice Kane can point you in the right direction? Maybe tell
her in an e-mail that you'd like to include information about Fordham
Univ in the Antonoff display during your Golden Jubilee. "Antonoff
made great achievements at Fordham from 19xx to 19yy. For example
(Picture of GA and his lab? Students?) ... Then he came here."
Sucking up sometimes helps!

And it makes it closer to her "job" of doing things to help to
promote Fordham and not just seem like an obscure or distracting
question from overseas.

Good luck!

Thank you very much for your information. I sent an email to the person
mentioned and she responded quickly, by sending a large picture by
email. It is quite grainy (perhaps the only available picture), of
course it would look bad in print especially in a large frame. I
requested to have this picture on paper by mail. Yes I mentioned the
facts and the reason for getting the picture.

Thanks.
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Repeating Rifle
science forum Guru Wannabe


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 205

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 4:31 am    Post subject: Re: Is knowledge in chemistry (atomic model) perfect ?? Reply with quote

in article pkJ0e.8996$uw6.7099@trnddc06, Joshua Halpern at
vze23qvd@verizon.net wrote on 3/24/05 4:55 PM:

Quote:
Might try sonoluminescence.

Whatever the ultmate explanation for sonluminescence may be, I expect it to
be in harmony with Schröedingers equation. The problem is: What is the
hamiltonian for all the particles (electrons and nucleii) to represent a
sonoluminescent mileu and how can you find the resultant many particle wave
function.

As study of quantum (as well as classical) statistical mechanics has already
shown, an exact solution is not necessary or desirable to extract much
useful information.

Start trying for that Nobel prize now.

Bill
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Y.Porat
science forum Guru


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 1809

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 5:27 am    Post subject: Re: Is knowledge in chemistry (atomic model) perfect ?? Reply with quote

Repeating Rifle wrote:
Quote:
in article pkJ0e.8996$uw6.7099@trnddc06, Joshua Halpern at
vze23qvd@verizon.net wrote on 3/24/05 4:55 PM:

Might try sonoluminescence.

Whatever the ultmate explanation for sonluminescence may be, I expect
it to
be in harmony with Schröedingers equation. The problem is: What is
the
hamiltonian for all the particles (electrons and nucleii) to
represent a
sonoluminescent mileu and how can you find the resultant many
particle wave
function.

As study of quantum (as well as classical) statistical mechanics has
already
shown, an exact solution is not necessary or desirable to extract
much
useful information.

Start trying for that Nobel prize now.

Bill
----------------


'exact solusion is not *necessary* ' hey idiot croock
it is just like people like you that are responsible
for the great regression of sci.physics.
[ps croock you will never find an exact solusion
with your existing 'holy scrolls'

btw are you not by any chance a physics teacher!! (Smile
(that makes his living from the existing preaching??
and learing something new is distrurbing his daly
peaceful agenda??
ie a fucken interesant??
----------------
Y.Porat
-----------------------
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Y.Porat
science forum Guru


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 1809

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 5:30 am    Post subject: Re: Is knowledge in chemistry (atomic model) perfect ?? Reply with quote

speak loud and clear and not ambiguously

is a revision in your fucken understanding
is needed or not ??
----------------
Y.Porat
--------------------
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Y.Porat
science forum Guru


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 1809

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 5:37 am    Post subject: Re: Is knowledge in chemistry (atomic model) perfect ?? Reply with quote

Repeating Rifle wrote:
Quote:
in article d4s0e.763716$Xk.258200@pd7tw3no, David Cross at
nospam@spammenot.com wrote on 3/23/05 9:18 PM:

"Scottie" <whatishiggs@yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:1111629418.590493.210620@f14g2000cwb.googlegroups.com...

Is the present knowledge of chemistry perfect or 100%
accounted for?? Meaning all the physics concepts of
the electrons (and atoms) can explain every single fact
in chemistry and no mystery absolutely of any kind or
concepts yet to be discovered??

The qualitative picture of many-electron atoms is fairly
well-established, but
the exact quantitative stuff is, asd I understand it, necessarily
subject to
approximation, even more so for the heavy elements there is
continuing
theoretical work because of the impact of relativistic effects as
well as the
lanthanide contraction. I don't know a helluva lot of computational
chemistry
so you should wait till Uncle Al comes along and sets us all
straight on that.
:)

You are confusing the inability to carry out rigorous calculations
with not
knowing what the fundamental physics is. The Shröedinger equation
describes
all the physics of chemical interactions based upon electron
interaction. No
one is able to solve it for complicated situations. Nevertheless,
--------------

who told you, assertive idiot, that no one can point out
the mistakes of the existing theory!!
i pointed out above only *some* of them
got it croock
why croock
because youa are hiding behid your false name
thats only the firts sighn
Y.Porat
----------------------
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Wilco Oelen
science forum beginner


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 33

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 6:28 am    Post subject: Re: Making Nickel Chloride Reply with quote

Jeremy Samuels wrote:
Quote:
Sounds easy enough..I'm trying to get some real nickel chloride from
a
plating supply house, but if that doesn't work I'll use the sodium
bicarbonate/nickel sulphate reaction.
To answer Wilco's question of why I want to make nickel chloride, the
best electroplating results for nickel are obtained using a Watt's
Bath. For some reason, it uses nickel sulphate and nickel chloride.
About twice as much sulphate as chloride.

If you need a bath with nickel sulfate and nickel chloride, I can
imagine that it also works if you dissolve nickel sulfate and some
plain table salt in the bath. This is equivalent to dissolving nickel
sulfate, nickel chloride and some sodium sulfate in water. Sodium ions
are totally inert in water. The only difference with a bath, containing
nickel sulfate and nickel chloride only is the increased conductivity
of the solution (I estimate it will be 30 - 50% more conductive).
If this works, then it saves a lot of hassling around with the
bicarbonate, heating etc. Sodium bicarbonate does not dissolve in water
really well (as far as I remember, around 75 grams per liter with a lot
of patience), you need a large volume of water, which has to be heated.

Wilco
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Farooq W
science forum Guru Wannabe


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 240

PostPosted: Fri Mar 25, 2005 7:13 am    Post subject: Re: Making Nickel Chloride Reply with quote

Wilco Oelen wrote:
Quote:
Jeremy Samuels wrote:
Sounds easy enough..I'm trying to get some real nickel chloride
from
a
plating supply house, but if that doesn't work I'll use the sodium
bicarbonate/nickel sulphate reaction.
To answer Wilco's question of why I want to make nickel chloride,
the
best electroplating results for nickel are obtained using a Watt's
Bath. For some reason, it uses nickel sulphate and nickel
chloride.
About twice as much sulphate as chloride.

If you need a bath with nickel sulfate and nickel chloride, I can
imagine that it also works if you dissolve nickel sulfate and some
plain table salt in the bath. This is equivalent to dissolving nickel
sulfate, nickel chloride and some sodium sulfate in water. Sodium
ions
are totally inert in water.

Indeed correct, but when you begin to electrolyse, what do you get?
Sodium hydroxide which in in few minutes of electrolysis would
precipitate nickel as its hydroxide, until and unless there is some
complexing agent present.


Quote:

Wilco
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 23, 2005 10:07 pm    Post subject: Re: Big Bertha Thing blogs Reply with quote

I have a couple great sites for everyone to check out.... please visit
these sites and take a look... Sorry for the spam but I am just
trying to promote.... These are great sites. One is for communities
and the other is for heavey equipment... They both are very
informative..



http://www.ureside.com

another great site is

http://www.mytractorforum.com
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Robert Swinney
science forum beginner


Joined: 24 Apr 2005
Posts: 2

PostPosted: Sun Apr 24, 2005 3:19 pm    Post subject: Re: physical basis for melting-points of alloys? Reply with quote

"Ed Huntress" <huntres23@optonline.net> wrote in message
news:XINae.3588$RP1.3506@fe10.lga...
Quote:
"Tim Williams" <tmoranwms@charter.net> wrote in message
news:_1Kae.13287$Gq6.10756@fe02.lga...
alanh_27@yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:1114320609.798027.80710@g14g2000cwa.googlegroups.com...
if two or more metals are alloyed, the resulting material might have a
lower melting temperature than any of the constituents... how is that
possible?

Because it destabilizes the structure. Some combinations are fully
interactive and do not form an eutectic; the copper-nickel system is a
good
example of this. Others cause it to increase, meaning a more stable
structure (i.e., more resistant to melting; note that solid state is an
organized crystalline form, while liquid is a randomized fluid). These
are
often accompanied by another crystalline phase which does contain a
coordinated combination of both atoms; it's usually known as an
intermetallic, which is usually also hard and brittle.

An eutectic structure is lammelar in appearance, meaning it alternates
(on
a
very small scale, maybe a micron in width) between the two phases. An
example is Sn63 solder, the eutectic between lead and tin. Tin and lead
phases both precipitate simultaneously; as one forms, say lead, the
remaining liquid it came from is slightly depleted, so the next layer is
tin. So on and so forth, presumably at a rate determined by the specific
physics of the alloy. (Aluminum-silicon has an unusual property where,
at
the eutectic, aluminum dendrites or silicon crystals always form as the
primary, before the fine eutectic sets around it. This is called a
coupled
zone, and that's about all I know about it...)

And so on and so forth; the eutectic layers interact through contact,
diffusion, and mutual solubility on melting to once again form an
homogenous
liquid.

But I digress, as I am rambling, in reply to a crossposted thread that's
probably a troll...

You're also demonstrating that you've learned a hell of a lot in the last
few years, and appear to be on your way to a nice career in physical
metallurgy or something. Keep it up.

Second that, Ed. Tim is doing really well.


Bob Swinney
Quote:
--
Ed Huntress


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 24, 2005 8:37 pm    Post subject: Re: physical basis for melting-points of alloys? Reply with quote

Quote:
"Tim Williams" <tmoranwms@charter.net> wrote
snip
But I digress, as I am rambling, in reply to a crossposted
thread that's probably a troll...

Troll or not that was a cool answer, thanks for posting it and not
emailing it. :)

Quote:
You're also demonstrating that you've learned a hell of a lot
in the last few years, and appear to be on your way to a nice
career in physical metallurgy or something. Keep it up.
Ed Huntress

Second that, Ed. Tim is doing really well.
Bob Swinney

Alvin in AZ
ps- studying metallurgy on my own... hope to someday make it "up-to"
being a pimple on a real-metallurgist ass... uhhh, or something
like that? :/
pps- if she's pretty, I guess that would be cool huh? Wink
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Deena Parham
science forum beginner


Joined: 24 Apr 2005
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Sun Apr 24, 2005 10:12 pm    Post subject: Re: Questions on soap and soapmaking Reply with quote

I'm rather new here, but I am going to try to answer one of your questions.

In hot process soap you pour the soap at trace into your lined molds and
finish it in the oven. (Do a google search for recipes and times.) It
causes the soap to be ready to unmold and cut sooner than if you do it cold
process.

Cold process you "cook" the soap on the stove top until trace and then pour
it into your molds, cover them and let them set for a day or so (depending
on the type of soap you're making.)

Hope this helps some,

Kahfess

--
Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off
your goal.

Hannah More

"Toby" <damnhardtofind@yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:8ade3710.0501151125.19b49e8d@posting.google.com...
Quote:
What determines the softness and the mildness of a (traditional) soap?

How does the soap from a hot and a cold process differ?

How much glycerin is produced in the saponification of coconut, olive,
palm oil with NaOH?

How much of the fat in coconut, olive, palm oil is unsaponifiable with
NaOH?

Why does KOH leave more unsaponified fats behind than NaOH?
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N:dlzc D:aol T:com (dlzc)
science forum Guru


Joined: 25 Mar 2005
Posts: 2835

PostPosted: Thu Apr 28, 2005 11:13 am    Post subject: Re: Ionization vs. Dissassociation Reply with quote

Dear Bob:

"Bob" <bbx107@excite.com> wrote in message
news:h3p0711dc37k8lopcds5oupgeh1ogvhv4u@4ax.com...
Quote:
On 27 Apr 2005 21:07:15 -0700, "Ryn" <yandoryn@gmail.com
wrote:

I'm talking about dissolving though, not hydrating.


How, pray tell, do you dissolve it without hydrating it?

Hot mercury?

David A. Smith
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 28, 2005 12:52 pm    Post subject: Re: Perchlorate contamination: How serious, how to fix? Reply with quote

This area of chemistry is not my specialty, so please pardon my
ignorance. Could perchlorates be eliminated or significantly reduced in
drinking water by boiling it?-Jitney
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