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Na contents measure using Atomic absorption spectrometry
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Mike Amling
science forum Guru


Joined: 05 May 2005
Posts: 525

PostPosted: Tue Sep 20, 2005 10:19 am    Post subject: Re: Tutorial for Polarograph Reply with quote

Quote:
There is tutorial
and manual and document Introduction for Polarography and Voltammetry
in www.polarograph.com:


Electrochemistry Software POLAROGRAPH.com 5.4
Electrochemical simulation and data analysis


DrHuang.com


Phone: (61 2) 9662 0516

Fax: (61 2) 9662 0516

www.electrochem.net

www.DrHuang.com

www.electrochemistrySoftware.com

Copyright @ 1990-2004




Contents



Chapter 1 Introduction. 5

Chapter 2 Polarography and Voltammetry. 5

2.1 Introduction. 5

2.2 Direct Current Polarography. 7

2.3 Linear Sweep Voltammetry and Cyclic Voltammetry. 9

2.4 Staircase Voltammetry. 12

2.5 Differential Staircase Voltammetry. 12

2.6 Alternating Current Voltammetry. 12

2.7 Square Wave Voltammetry. 12

2.8 Additive Square Wave Voltammetry. 13

2.9 Normal Pulse Voltammetry. 13

2.10 Reserve Pulse Voltammetry. 14

2.11 Differential Pulse Voltammetry. 14

2.12 Pseudo-Derivative Normal Pulse Voltammetry. 15

2.13 Stripping Voltammetry. 15

Chapter 3 Specification. 18

Chapter 4 Menu. 22

Chapter 5 Input 25

5.1 Techniques Window.. 25

5.2 Instrument Window.. 26

5.3 Mechanism Window.. 28

5.4 Kinetics Window.. 28

5.5 Concentration Window.. 29

Chapter 6 Playing Around. 30

6.1 Simulating over 30 Factors. 30

6.1.1 Effect of pH.. 31

6.1.2 Effect of Hydrogen Ion Number 31

6.1.3 Effect of Reactant And Product Numbers. 31

6.1.4 Effect of Electron Number 32

6.1.5 Effect of Electrode Geometry. 32

6.1.6 Effect of Electrode Size. 32

6.1.7 Effect of Electrode Rotating Speed. 33

6.1.8 Effect of Scan Rate. 33

6.1.9 Effect of Preconcentration Time. 33

6.1.10 Effect of Preconcentration Potential 34

6.1.11 Effect of Concentration. 34

6.1.12 Effect of Pulse Height 34

6.1.13 Effect of Pulse Width. 34

6.1.14 Effect of Sampling Time. 34

6.1.15 Effect of Techniques. 35

6.1.16 Effect of Scan Direction. 35

6.1.17 Effect of Scan Cycle. 35

6.1.18 Effect of Diffusion Coefficient 35

6.1.19 Effect of Catalytic Reaction Rate. 35

6.1.20 Effect of Concentration of Catalyst 36

6.1.21 Effect of Drop Time. 36

6.1.22 Effect of Chemical Reaction Rate. 36

6.1.23 Effect Of Heterogeneous Standard Rate. 36

6.1.24 Effect Of Adsorption Reaction. 36

6.1.25 Effect Of Adsorption Coefficient 36

6.1.26 Effect Of Electron Transfer Coefficient 37

6.1.27 Effect Of Frequency. 37

6.1.28 Effect Of Temperature. 37

6.1.29 Effect Of Resistance. 37

6.1.30 Effect Of Double Layer Capacitance. 37

6.2 Surface Concentration. 37

6.3 Comparing Curves. 38

6.4 Analyzing Data. 38

6.5 Calculating Theoretical Limiting Current 38

6.6 Extracting Parameters by Curve Fitting. 39

6.6.1 Fitting to Simulation Curve. 39

6.6.2 Fitting to Experimental Curve. 39

6.7 Separating Overlapped Peaks. 41

6.8 Separating Faradic Current From Background Current 41

Chapter 7 How Do You Know It Is Right?. 42

Chapter 8 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 42

Chapter 9 References. 46


----------------

"Wayne" <nospam-mail@wlawson.com> wrote in message
news:3MAyc.46$oO2.40@newsfe1-win...
For www.DrHuang.com program!

Cheers


Wayne


"Dieter Britz" <britz@chem.au.dk> wrote in message
news:cabl3l$pu3$1@news.net.uni-c.dk...
Wayne wrote:
Hi All

Does anyone know where there is an abc tutorial to Polarograph?

Cheers

Wayne

Which instrument do you mean? The old Sargeant Polarograph,
or the Metrohm one, or what? {:]

--
Dieter Britz, Kemisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet, Danmark.
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Mike Amling
science forum Guru


Joined: 05 May 2005
Posts: 525

PostPosted: Thu Oct 06, 2005 1:57 am    Post subject: re: Effect of Hydrogen Ion Number Reply with quote

As the hydrogen ion number h increases from 1 to 2, the peak
shift increase from 60 to 120 mV more negative potential per pH. These agree
with the above theoretical equation.

www.electrochemist.com
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p4o2
science forum beginner


Joined: 16 Oct 2005
Posts: 5

PostPosted: Sat Oct 29, 2005 3:43 pm    Post subject: Re: tov Reply with quote

Why would anyone pay for something that is free at Google ?
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raconte@hotmail.com
science forum addict


Joined: 03 Nov 2005
Posts: 72

PostPosted: Thu Nov 03, 2005 4:01 am    Post subject: Re: Spherisorb HPLC Column regeneration Reply with quote

Jimmy wrote:
Quote:
I am quantitating homocysteine by HPLC and using a sperisorb reverse
phase column. I am at the moment having problems with the column. It
looks like it's contaminated by protein material from patient serum
from which I extract the homocysteine. The column is spherisorb, silica
3 um woth 90 Angstrom pore size. Phase is ODS-2 (S3-ODS2) and 11%
carbon. The length is 100mm with ID of 4.6 mm. Can anybody help me with
how to regenerate protein contaminated column. Thanks.

Jimmy

You'll have better luck with questions such as these if you try this
forum here: http://www.sepsci.com/chromforum/ Its dedicated to
chromatography, and they'll be able to offer specific vendors for your
app, which would only get flames over here. Also try the newsgroup
sci.chem.analytical, like I just crossposted.

There are a number of chaotropes that are good for removing adsorbed
proteins from a derivitized silica column, if you're sure thats the
problem. I'd suggest 6 M urea as one likely to be safe enough for your
column and system, and non-hazardous for your exposure, but the vendor
for your particular column would have more specific information for you.
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David C. Stone
science forum beginner


Joined: 05 May 2005
Posts: 48

PostPosted: Thu Nov 03, 2005 6:31 pm    Post subject: Re: Spherisorb HPLC Column regeneration Reply with quote

In article <1130990471.050157.318180@g43g2000cwa.googlegroups.com>,
<raconte@hotmail.com> wrote:

Quote:
Jimmy wrote:
I am quantitating homocysteine by HPLC and using a sperisorb reverse
phase column. I am at the moment having problems with the column. It
looks like it's contaminated by protein material from patient serum
from which I extract the homocysteine. The column is spherisorb, silica
3 um woth 90 Angstrom pore size. Phase is ODS-2 (S3-ODS2) and 11%
carbon. The length is 100mm with ID of 4.6 mm. Can anybody help me with
how to regenerate protein contaminated column. Thanks.

Jimmy

You'll have better luck with questions such as these if you try this
forum here: http://www.sepsci.com/chromforum/ Its dedicated to
chromatography, and they'll be able to offer specific vendors for your
app, which would only get flames over here. Also try the newsgroup
sci.chem.analytical, like I just crossposted.

There are a number of chaotropes that are good for removing adsorbed
proteins from a derivitized silica column, if you're sure thats the
problem. I'd suggest 6 M urea as one likely to be safe enough for your
column and system, and non-hazardous for your exposure, but the vendor
for your particular column would have more specific information for you.

And before you try this again, invest in a pack of guard columns!!
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George Orwell
science forum beginner


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 49

PostPosted: Fri Nov 18, 2005 3:59 am    Post subject: Re: INNOVATIONS Reply with quote

"J.T." <abc@abc.cd> wrote in news:dlj0ug$inq$1@news.task.gda.pl:

Quote:
Welcome to Euresis!

New ideas! New opportunities! New people!

GLOBAL NETWORK OF INNOVATIONS GROUP connects science with
business and industry.
GLOBAL NETWORK OF INNOVATIONS GROUP connects business
innovators.

International technology and know-how transfer centres, centres
of excellence, universities, business associations, conventions
and much more...


Yeah, sure, sign up! Get more spam!

Don't you really mean "Global network of intellectual property
thieves" ?

George
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J.T.
science forum beginner


Joined: 21 Nov 2005
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Mon Nov 21, 2005 11:36 pm    Post subject: Re: INNOVATIONS Reply with quote

There are so many tools on the Internet, not everything is made for cheating
or gaining unfair advantage. Individual users should be aware of this and
how to use those tools safely.

GLOBAL NETWORK OF INNOVATIONS GROUP may connect lawyers with other users of
the group. These lawyers may be able to help with issues surrounding
intellectual property rights of a particular idea etc....

GLOBAL NETWORK OF INNOVATIONS GROUP is simply designed as a tool for putting
interested parties in touch with each other and sharing ideas etc. It is not
meant as a place where unscrupulous users can act as ".....intellectual
property thieves"

Let`s increase GNI GROUP.

Regards
GNI GROUP


Użytkownik "George Orwell" <the_pig@farm.com.invalid> napisał w wiadomości
news:Xns9711CB6E7209Corwellian@216.196.97.131...
Quote:
"J.T." <abc@abc.cd> wrote in news:dlj0ug$inq$1@news.task.gda.pl:

Welcome to Euresis!

New ideas! New opportunities! New people!

GLOBAL NETWORK OF INNOVATIONS GROUP connects science with
business and industry.
GLOBAL NETWORK OF INNOVATIONS GROUP connects business
innovators.

International technology and know-how transfer centres, centres
of excellence, universities, business associations, conventions
and much more...


Yeah, sure, sign up! Get more spam!

Don't you really mean "Global network of intellectual property
thieves" ?

George
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Schorsch
science forum beginner


Joined: 25 Nov 2005
Posts: 2

PostPosted: Fri Nov 25, 2005 12:17 pm    Post subject: Re: The lowdown on Finkelstein Reply with quote

fredweiss@papertig.com wrote:
Quote:
Reggie Perrin wrote:

re: Finkelstein

... It is
now my belief that he is not himself a Holocaust denier, though he does
lend credibility to such people.

There should be a separate category to encompass those - who while not
denying the Holocaust (which is only the purview of total crackpots)-
have as their objective *to diminish* its significance. You could call
them "the Holocaust diminishers", most of whom have as their specific
objective to diminish its significance specifically in regard to the
Jews.

Saying that Revisionists or generally those doubting the occurrence of
"homicidal gassings" in Auschwitz as claimed by some sources are
"Holocaust deniers" is actually building a straw man and labeling
others. It's a form of name-calling.
Here is an example of a source doubting the occurrence of "homicidal
gassings" in Auschwitz:
http://vho.org/GB/Books/trr/
Tell me, is this "denying the Holocaust"? Or ask differently is
Germar Rudolf (who is now to be jailed in Germany) a "Holocaust
deniers"?

Quote:
This can also include people who while not questioning the
magnitude of the Holocaust resent the fact that so much emphasis is put
on the Jews to the supposed exclusion of others, e.g. gypsies,
homosexuals, etc. who also were killed in great numbers.

Well I'd say "the Holocaust" is a "social construct".
Holocaust is religious terminology. And I'd therefore would dismiss
it. That people (including Jews, Gypsies, Homos) got killed during WW2,
I won't dispute. But why should this deserve more attention than all
those Germans being killed or the Eastern Europeans killed by
Communists? People should be free to formulate any thesis on past
events. Privileging dubious claims originating from atrocity propaganda
leads me to the question whether those claims are valid at all.

Quote:

Fred Weiss
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bythepowervested@yahoo.co
science forum beginner


Joined: 26 Nov 2005
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Sat Nov 26, 2005 9:55 am    Post subject: Re: The lowdown on Finkelstein Reply with quote

Schorsch skrev:


Quote:
That people (including Jews, Gypsies, Homos) got killed during WW2,
I won't dispute. But why should this deserve more attention than all
those Germans being killed or the Eastern Europeans killed by
Communists?
I don't know where you're from but people where i'm from tend to utter

Hitler and Stalin in the same breath and usually Mao, too. People also
go on and on about Communism killing more people than.....(there are
different versions all with big numbers). I don't think you are paying
attention. Can we talk about Rwanda or will the dead you care about
feel left out?


Quote:
People should be free to formulate any thesis on past
events.

Privileging dubious claims originating from atrocity propaganda
leads me to the question whether those claims are valid at all.
That is not logical. How people use something is not a good test of

its truth value. That certain people use statistics on Communist
atrocities to protect their high incomes and freedom to exploit never
makes me question the fact that communist countries committed
innumerable atrocities.
> > Fred Weiss
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hanson
science forum Guru


Joined: 04 May 2005
Posts: 793

PostPosted: Sat Nov 26, 2005 7:01 pm    Post subject: Re: The lowdown on Finkelstein Reply with quote

http://groups.google.com/group/humanities.philosophy.objectivism/msg/5358a2dffd18f818
[Reggie Perrin]
One of Finkelstein's key claims in _The Holocaust Industry_ is that:
"[M]uch of the literature on Hitler's Final Solution is worthless as
scholarship. Indeed, the field of Holocaust studies is replete with
nonsense, if not sheer fraud."
Hilberg's estimate of 5.1 million. Gilbert's 5.8 million as a minimum
The Holocaust Industry, once again, has no basis in fact.
I wish to retract my claim that Finkelstein is a Holocaust denier.
Quote:

[Fred Weiss]

call them "the Holocaust diminishers", to diminish its significance
in regard to the Jews. ....people who while not questioning the
magnitude of the Holocaust resent the fact that so much emphasis
is put on the Jews to the supposed exclusion of others,

[Schorsch]
"Holocaust deniers" is actually building a straw man and labeling
others. It's a form of name-calling. ... is Germar Rudolf (who is
now to be jailed in Germany) a "Holocaust denier"?

[Reggie Perrin]
Yes, yes he is. Hope that clears things up for you. Now f*** off.

["Don't Panic" vobbo...@aol.com]
"That's bullshit, the Nazis didn't kill 6 million, they only killed 5.1 million"
is trying to put a dress on a pig.

[Fred Weiss]
The key give-away word there is "only". That's the word designed to
diminish. .... 2,000 American casualities in Irag .. More people are
probably killed in car accidents in an average month.

["Don't Panic" vobbo...@aol.com]
What a whitewash.

[hanson]
.... ahahaha... so, a half a dozen posts about the Holocaust industry
and then the thread veers off into contemporary issues, apparently
much to the chagrin of the initiators....

....... ahahaha... so, a half a dozen posts about a Holocaust industry
revival attempt with the hope/intent to renew interests to generate
more $$$ revenue off the 60 to 70 year old, cold ashes of the WII
victims... ahahaha.... It's a very persistent endeavor, that Holocaust
rallying... with its Tolerance Museums.... tolerating "settling", read the
stealing of little parcels of land and causing by that the rise and foment
of massive terrorism by the victims... (even after receiving for the last
40+ years annually $3-6 billion off the dinner plates from US taxpayers
but showing nothing in return except for the weekly repetitions of 60
year old KZ movies on PBS and other "educational" TV channels).

So, if you are bent on such necrophiliaic victim exploitation then f*** all
that Holocaust industry s**t... ...... be at least even-handed and make an
VICTIM INDUSTRY situation out of it. There should be far more money
in such a enterprise. Why go for a miserly 6 million Jews when you have
an untapped reservoir of 200 Million people who fell victim to genocides
globally during the 20th century? That 3% of Jews within that gruesome
ocean of blood is insignificant... to the point of understandable denial.
Yet, that puny 3% "holocaust" is still loudly kept alive in the tabloids by
some Jews who are making 97% of the noise over the/ir victim issue and
profiting from it, having collected so far $Billions and billions even off/
from the **** grandchildren **** of WII perpetrators... Jewish tolerance!

Holocaust profiteerors do anything to keep that revenue stream alive...
not even caring nor worrying that in their perverted greed it is them, they
themselves who are promulgating and perpetuating "anti Semitism".....
in fact it is hard to fathom why these types of Jews, for a fist-full of dollars,
are laboring so very, very hard to make HITLER's LAST CURSE to
become self-fulfilling prophesy, a prediction that Adolf expressed in his
last message in the Spring of 1945: = "in a 100 years from now the world
will be grateful to me for what I, Hitler, have started!" = 60 down/40 to go...

From the way it looks now-a-days, that laboring of these Jews has been
on Hilter's track as predicted. But, actually, don't be surprised. They have
caused and invited to receive such epic and periodic, collective ass-kickings
and barbequings so far 35 times before, during their long & illustrious history.
Why get off a winning horse? ....They must like it. ... Jewish tolerance!
ahahahaha... ahahaha.... ahahanson
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Schorsch
science forum beginner


Joined: 25 Nov 2005
Posts: 2

PostPosted: Mon Dec 05, 2005 1:18 pm    Post subject: Re: The lowdown on Finkelstein Reply with quote

bythepowervested@yahoo.com wrote:
Quote:
Schorsch skrev:


That people (including Jews, Gypsies, Homos) got killed during WW2,
I won't dispute. But why should this deserve more attention than all
those Germans being killed or the Eastern Europeans killed by
Communists?

I don't know where you're from but people where i'm from tend to utter
Hitler and Stalin in the same breath and usually Mao, too. People also
go on and on about Communism killing more people than.....(there are
different versions all with big numbers). I don't think you are paying
attention. Can we talk about Rwanda or will the dead you care about
feel left out?


One can not use alleged atrocities of X to proof alleged atrocities of
Y. The subject in question here deals mainly with the homicidal gassing
allegation. And the overrepresenation of alleged atrocities against
Jews.

Quote:
People should be free to formulate any thesis on past
events.

Privileging dubious claims originating from atrocity propaganda
leads me to the question whether those claims are valid at all.
That is not logical. How people use something is not a good test of
its truth value.

I didn't do that. What I meant, and I think this is clear from the
context, is that prosecuting questioning certain statements leads to
more serious questions about the statement. Prosecuting public
questioning of a claim is a way of privileging that claim.
Can we agree that "the Holocaust" is shielded from criticism and
scientific investigation by enforment of laws impairing freedom of
speech and prejudices ?


Quote:
That certain people use statistics on Communist
atrocities to protect their high incomes and freedom to exploit never
makes me question the fact that communist countries committed
innumerable atrocities.

One should ask for evidence no matter what the motives of a claim are.
There is physical evidence concisely proving the Katyn massacre. There
is no physical evidence concisely proving homicidal gassings in
Auschwitz. There are however piles of documents and artifacts allowing
us conclusions on the situation in Auschwitz during the war.



> > > Fred Weiss
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raconte@hotmail.com
science forum addict


Joined: 03 Nov 2005
Posts: 72

PostPosted: Tue Dec 13, 2005 1:01 am    Post subject: Re: HPLC baseline problems Reply with quote

Collin wrote:
Quote:
First real post so please, be patient with me.

I'm using HPLC with a fluorescence detector for PAH and phenol
detection. we have an initial water/methanol mobile phase which changes
to acetonitrile and runs as a gradient for about 20 mins. This works
fine Surprised) Recently I was advised that I should be filtering my mobile
phases in addition to degasing. Supplied with filtering equipment and
filter (0.2 um) I do as suggested. my baseline goes bananas. I'm
thinking that this is due to the release of plasticisers from the
filters. anyone like to confirm or deny my suspicions?

Incidentally, I have gone back to the original methodology I started
with.

Collin

You'll have better luck with these sort of questions over at
sci.chem.analytical (I crosspostyed for you) , or at www.chromforum.com

They'll want to know what wavelengths you're working at, the brand and
model of equipment, what problems caused you to change your
methodology, and the brand and type of filter you used. Run time? Not
so much. That detail is for separation problems, not baseline issues.
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reggieperrin@gmail.com
science forum beginner


Joined: 14 Dec 2005
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Wed Dec 14, 2005 1:13 am    Post subject: Re: The lowdown on Finkelstein Reply with quote

hanson wrote:
Quote:
[...]
[Reggie Perrin]
One of Finkelstein's key claims in _The Holocaust Industry_ is that:
"[M]uch of the literature on Hitler's Final Solution is worthless as
scholarship. Indeed, the field of Holocaust studies is replete with
nonsense, if not sheer fraud."
Hilberg's estimate of 5.1 million. Gilbert's 5.8 million as a minimum
The Holocaust Industry, once again, has no basis in fact.
I wish to retract my claim that Finkelstein is a Holocaust denier.

To "Hanson":
Whether intentionally or otherwise, you have grossly distorted the
content of my original post. I did not say that the "Holocaust
Industry" has no basis in fact. What I actually said was that two
assertions made by Norman Finkelstein in _The Holocaust Industry_ have
no basis in fact. Furthermore, you have chosen to quote the part where
I said that I was wrong to have called Finkelstein a Holocaust denier,
but omitted the part where I described his scholarship as lazy,
misleading, and irresponsible.

Oh, and another thing... you're a cunt.
Love, Reggie x

To "Schorsch":
Transplanting a post from its original context without notifying the
authors is the height of bad form. Presumably you did it so that you
could look like you'd won the argument but in fact all you have
succeeded in doing is exposing your own intellectual cowardice.
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Bruce Sinclair
science forum Guru Wannabe


Joined: 08 May 2005
Posts: 174

PostPosted: Wed Feb 15, 2006 12:10 am    Post subject: Re: Meaning of %T in flame photometry Reply with quote

In article <11v444hsom6fu10@corp.supernews.com>, Marvin <physchem@cloud9.net> wrote:
Quote:
Bruce Sinclair wrote:
In article <11v1grijq653ra3@corp.supernews.com>, Marvin <physchem@cloud9.net
wrote:

It is a common thing for manufacturers to offer more
precision that makes sense technically. An example is pH
meters that read to 0.001 pH unit. It is a marketing ploy
called "specsmanship".

Possibly, though pH was perhaps a poor choice of example. Sometimes that
last digit really does matter.

I doubt that it means anything unless you have either
excellent temperature control, or temperature compensation
that really works.

Yep ... and don't filter the solution after you pH it either :)

Quote:
Look, for example, at the NIST certificate for a pH
standard, at
http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/230/232/ARCHIVED_CERTIFICATES/187d.pdf

Note the table of pH values vs. T, and see that the
uncertainty of each value is 0.005 pH. Do you think a
commercial pH meter can do as well as the equipment NIST
used? Even if it could, how well can it be calibrated?

My experience says that the third decimal for pH has its uses. As you
suggest and I said earlier, choose your method carefully for the results you
need :)


Bruce

----------------------------------------
I believe you find life such a problem because you think there are the good
people and the bad people. You're wrong, of course. There are, always and
only, the bad people, but some of them are on opposite sides.

Lord Vetinari in Guards ! Guards ! - Terry Pratchett

Caution ===== followups may have been changed to relevant groups
(if there were any)
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David C. Stone
science forum beginner


Joined: 05 May 2005
Posts: 48

PostPosted: Wed Mar 08, 2006 2:25 pm    Post subject: Re: looking for answer. Reply with quote

In article <1141769971.612774.126340@z34g2000cwc.googlegroups.com>,
<Peter_Hunnt@yahoo.com> wrote:

Quote:
Hello
I don't know what is the best way to ask this, so I'm going to say it
in my plane language.
Is it possible to change the structure of chemicals with radio
frequency..?

Radio freqency what? Electrical voltages, rf-band em radiation,
rf-modulated visible light, rf-modulated electric fields, rf-induced
plasmas?

And yes, that is a serious question, not a sarcastic response - you
need to be more specific. Here's some examples:

Chemists use microwave ovens to speed up chemical reactions.

Microwave-induced plasmas are used to completely dissociate molecules
into atoms and monatomic ions.

Low-intensity rf-band em radiation is used to study molecular structure
without destroying or altering the molecule(s) in question.

I'm sure others can add additional examples...
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