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Max Keon
science forum Guru Wannabe

Joined: 05 Jun 2005
Posts: 111

Posted: Mon May 15, 2006 9:32 am    Post subject: Anisotropy in the gravity FORCE (update 2)

Anisotropy In The Gravity FORCE (update 2).
------------------------------------------

Some years ago I attempted to measure the speed at which the action
of gravity is applied.

If the action of gravity is not instantaneous, the forces applied
to the up and down moving sides of a disc rotating on an axis that's
parallel to the earth's surface will not be equal. A disc that's
free to rotate within a housing which is forced to rotate at a
constant rate will never come to rest with its rotating housing.
It will always lag behind.

-----
The complete updated version is at
http://www.optusnet.com.au/~maxkeon/gravity.html
-----

Assuming that gravity acts at light speed, the relevant equations
to determine the change in the action of gravity are
g' = ((c + v) ^ 2 / c ^ 2) * g for the up direction, and
g' = ((c - v) ^ 2 / c ^ 2) * g for the down direction.

-----
-----

I can't claim to know how fast the action of gravity is applied,
only that it's not instantaneous, or anything like it. And until the
possibility that the free disc slowing isn't caused entirely by an
axle which is rolling in a clearance with its mating part, as remote
a possibility as that is, I can't even make that claim with absolute
confidence. The test of that is quite simple though. All I need do
is reverse the needle point bearing so that the points are attached
to the rotating housing, and the carrier indents are on each end of
the axle shaft through the free disc. The free disc rotation will
then slow relative to its housing.
--------------

24-4-06.
The program I was using to control the rotation rate of the free
disc housing spends time servicing all of the calculations etc.
before it can return to again take care of the rotation rate of
the housing. There is a constant time chunk removed from the cycle,
regardless of the rotation rate. Therefore, the calculated rotation
rates were not quite correct. The modified program does the
calculations in the space between light off and light on behind the
housing flag, so changes to the rotation rate also change the time
width of the window in which the calculations are done. The flag
on the housing is 16mm wide, and if the program hasn't returned to
monitor the rotation rate by the time that window has gone, the
program is halted.

I have now inverted the needle point bearings and the result is
still much the same. I've also increased the shaft diameters of
the rotating housing to 17mm to allow for the free disc axle to be
extended outside the entire unit so that I can physically monitor
its performance, make adjustments, and carry out any test on the
spring loaded contact point without upsetting anything else. The
disc now weighs 59 grams, and with the disc weight pressing down
on the hozizontally aligned bearings, it takes 64 grams to separate
the needle from its seat. If the need arose, that force could be
substantially reduced and the disc bearings would still be held firm
with no clearance.

During the course of a marathon test, the affects from temperature
and atmospheric pressure changes were very obvious, and expected.
i.e. If all of the air was removed from inside the rotating housing
and there was zero friction in the free disc bearings, the free disc
would remain oriented with earth.

13-5-06. Note: That was a hastily contrived judgment which is
proving to be false. With the temperature now well under control,
varying the temperature up and down by a couple of degrees makes
no noticeable difference. It now seems more likely that the speed
control mechanism may have temporarily malfunctioned due to some
crappie connectors that I've been using.

The program which I previously included as a demonstration of how I
arrived at the "calculated" results appears to have been seriously
flawed. I completely bamboozled myself trying to fit the gravity
anisotropy into it. I used this formula<BR> SQR(ma / ((v * m) - r))
to plot one set of comparisons. 'ma' is a simple multiplier.
v * m - r gave the effective tangential velocity of the outer disc
after the velocity required to overcome the bearing resistance 'r'
had been subtracted, and that result included the gravity anisotropy
'm'. For starters, I should have added -1 to the end. I imagined
that by taking the square root of the results I could work backwards
and finish up with the same result as if I started from the other
end and squared everything off the zero mark. The linear option
was mb / (v - r). 'mb' was the multiplier and v - r was again the
effective velocity.

The result matched what I had assumed would be the case, so I put
away my binoculars for a while.

I've now set up a program to plot the curves for the squared and
linear options, generated between the absolute parameters of, from
zero time at instantaneous rotation, to eternity at zero rotation.
Somewhere along those curves, there should be a match with the curve
generated from experiment.

The data used in the following graph is as was previously presented.
It was collected in a short duration test conducted on a very still
and overcast day, when temperature and atmospheric pressure would be
the most stable. The test was conducted from the higher speed to the
lower speed rotation rates. A final check at the high speed end
confirmed that everything was still running as before. Even though
the results carry no absolute guarantees, they are certainly good
enough to demonstrate my point, for now.

Note: The curves in the graph do not include the gravity anisotropy.
To do so would be pointless at this time because the 'error bars'
are **far** wider than the anisotropy. Proving that an anisotropy
exists is the first priority anyway.

http://www.optusnet.com.au/~maxkeon/test1.jpg

Since a far closer match with the linear option is now obvious,
I've had to re-think my apparently erroneous reasoning. It really
is quite straight forward. If the housing is rotating at i.e. 5 rps
and the gravity anisotropy drives the free disc by x m/sec while
driving the air mass in contact with the housing and the free disc,
at y m/sec at the free disc, when the housing is rotating at
10 r/sec, the free disc will be driven at 2x m/sec and the air mass
between the free disc and housing, in contact with the free disc,
will be driven at 2y m/sec. Even though the movement rate of every
part of the air gap between the housing and the free disc doubles,
it all doubles proportionally to the free disc movement. It all
adds up to a simple linear rate of change per velocity.

This is the program which generated the graph. Feedback would be
much appreciated if it's still flawed.

SCREEN 12
CLS
COLOR 8
LINE (10, 50)-(500, 50)
LINE (10, 100)-(500, 100)
LINE (10, 150)-(500, 150) 'Grid lines
LINE (10, 200)-(500, 200)
LINE (10, 250)-(500, 250)
LINE (10, 300)-(500, 300)
LINE (10, 350)-(500, 350)
LINE (10, 400)-(500, 400)
LINE (100, 50)-(100, 410)
LINE (150, 50)-(150, 410)
LINE (200, 50)-(200, 410)
LINE (250, 50)-(250, 410)
LINE (300, 50)-(300, 410)
LINE (350, 50)-(350, 410)
LINE (400, 50)-(400, 410)
LINE (450, 50)-(450, 410)
LINE (500, 50)-(500, 410)
COLOR 7
LOCATE 27, 13
PRINT "13 12 11 revs/sec 9 8 7 6 5"
LOCATE 15, 60: PRINT "Seconds per"
LOCATE 16, 60: PRINT "free disc"
LOCATE 17, 60: PRINT "revolution."
LOCATE 19, 64: PRINT "40"
LOCATE 13, 64: PRINT "80"
LOCATE 7, 64: PRINT "120"
FOR ss = 1 TO 13: READ u, k
kk = 9.35 * (27 / k)
'PRINT kk
CIRCLE (750 - (kk * 50), 400 - (u * 2.5)), 2, 12
NEXT ss
COLOR 12
LOCATE 23, 24: PRINT "Start"

lin = 6 'Set these numbers to whatever you want.
'Rotation rate required to overcome bearing resistance (linear scale)
squ = 4.1
'Rotation rate required to overcome bearing resistance(squared scale)

s = 10
aa: rps = 200 / s 'Start point is 20 r/sec.
rpx = rps - lin 'Effective rotation.
rpy = rps - squ

CIRCLE ((750 - (rps * 50)), 400 - ((1 / rpx * 130))), 0, 9
'The 130 multiplier pulls the curve up to compare with experiment.
'But the curve relationship will never change.

CIRCLE ((750 - (rps * 50)), 400 - (((1 / rpy) ^ 2 * 1130))), 0, 15
CIRCLE (750 - (rps * 50), 400 - ((1 / rps * 130))), 0, 14
'Break point is 0 revs per second (750 pixels across = 0 rps).

s = s + .05
IF s > 50 THEN GOTO ab
GOTO aa

ab: COLOR 14
LOCATE 24, 38: PRINT "Zero friction bias curve"
LOCATE 25, 38: PRINT "Absolute boundary = 0 revs/sec."
LOCATE 14, 20: COLOR 12: PRINT "Per experiment"
LOCATE 13, 8: COLOR 9
PRINT "Linear curve. Absolute boundary ="; lin; "rps."
LOCATE 12, 8: COLOR 15
PRINT "Result ^2. Absolute boundary ="; squ; "rps."
LINE (750 - (lin * 50), 10)-(750 - (lin * 50), 450), 9
LINE (750 - (squ * 50), 10)-(750 - (squ * 50), 450), 15
LOCATE 9, 8: COLOR 7
PRINT "These are the best fit curves that can"
LOCATE 10, 8
PRINT "be generated from each option."
LOCATE 6, 8: PRINT "Test results using a cavity on"
LOCATE 7, 8: PRINT "each end of the axle."

DATA 11.4,24,12.4,25,14.6,26,15.2,27,16.4,28,18.4,29,19.8,30
DATA 23,31,25.2,32,29.6,33,36.4,34,48,35,64.8,36,131.6,37
'Test results using a cavity on each end of the axle.

The program will run as it is if it can find its way into Qbasic.
Copy-paste it into Notepad.

If the disc slowing is due entirely to some mechanical anomaly, it
will show up right from the start. The curve shape the disc slowing
will then follow is shown low on the graph (dark blue). That curve
can never be made remotely comparable to the curves generated from
where the bearing resistance is first overcome.

Even if the free disc slowing is due to the physical sagging of the
disc foam toward the gravity source, the slowing would still follow
that curve shape because it is a constant distortion which does not
change because the rotation rate changes. If that force is incapable
of overcoming the bearing resistance at the very beginning of
rotation, it will remain so regardless of the rotation rate. It
could well contribute to lowering the point at which the bearing
friction is finally overcome, and that could change the result. But
if that contribution was of any significance at all, it would show
up in the graph. It no doubt does to a minor degree.

------------

SOMETHING IS CAUSING THE FREE DISC TO ROTATE AS IT DOES, AND THAT
SOMETHING MUST BE IDENTIFIED. IF IT'S NOT A GRAVITY ANISOTROPY, THEN
WHAT IS IT?

The next step is to upgrade the precision of the needle point
bearings. Also, a free disc axle shaft that has a needle point on
one end and a cavity on the other will eliminate any possibility
of the axle rolling in either direction, even if there is slight
clearance between the mating parts.

27-4-06
The bearing upgrade has been completed. All mating parts are now
hardened and have been run in prior to assembly. The load on the
bearing ends is now 108 grams, and it runs much more freely than
the previous bearing set. In fact it runs so free that it's hard
to determine at what point the bearing friction is overcome. Because
the rotating housing is forever hunting back and forth around any
chosen speed control point, the bearing surfaces between the housing
and disc are in constant motion, and remain fluid. The disc just
keeps on slowly chugging along.

The needle point end of the free disc axle shaft protrudes beyond
the rotating housing and is clearly accessible. The assembly
carrying the flat spring bearing cavity is of course attached to
the rotating housing. http://www.optusnet.com.au/~maxkeon/needle.jpg

The next obvious task is to control temperature. Atmospheric
pressure change rates shouldn't be of consequence on the right day.

--------------

14-5-06.
With temperature now well under control, the results have shown no
sign of improvement. And even if they improved significantly,
there's still little hope of ever detecting the exact speed of the
gravity force.

The blue circles in the following graph are the results of a test
using the needle point-cavity axle setup, in a temperature
controlled environment. The set of figures shown in this graph are
the final contribution to the calculated graph plots. The gravity
anisotropy is calculated from the true zero rotation mark, while
the yellow (linear) curve is calculated from the effective rotation
mark (minus bearing friction). The purple curve is the yellow curve
plus the gravity anisotropy magnified 5000 times. If the speed of
the action of gravity happened to be c / 5000 the same curve
comparison would result. The sky is the limit then though. Pick
any number between zero and infinity and it could well be your lucky
number.

http://www.optusnet.com.au/~maxkeon/anistrop.jpg

The gravity anisotropy is constantly effective, proportionally to
the rotation axis, on the entire half disc mass. Regardless of how
much matter is involved in the disc make-up, the maximum rate that
it will ever shift is set by the anisotropy. Nothing is going to
make it any easier to detect.

I think it's probably time to throw in the towel.

This is the program, just in case it's seriously flawed.

SCREEN 12
DEFDBL A-Z
c = 300000000#
g = 9.801364#
COLOR 8
LINE (10, 50)-(500, 50)
LINE (10, 100)-(500, 100)
LINE (10, 150)-(500, 150) 'Grid lines
LINE (10, 200)-(500, 200)
LINE (10, 250)-(500, 250)
LINE (10, 300)-(500, 300)
LINE (10, 350)-(500, 350)
LINE (10, 400)-(500, 400)
LINE (100, 50)-(100, 410)
LINE (150, 50)-(150, 410)
LINE (200, 50)-(200, 410)
LINE (250, 50)-(250, 410)
LINE (300, 50)-(300, 410)
LINE (350, 50)-(350, 410)
LINE (400, 50)-(400, 410)
LINE (450, 50)-(450, 410)
LINE (500, 50)-(500, 410)
COLOR 7
LOCATE 27, 13
PRINT "13 12 11 revs/sec 9 8 7 6 5"
LOCATE 15, 60: PRINT "Seconds per"
LOCATE 16, 60: PRINT "free disc"
LOCATE 17, 60: PRINT "revolution."
LOCATE 19, 64: PRINT "40"
LOCATE 13, 64: PRINT "80"
LOCATE 7, 64: PRINT "120"
GOSUB ac

FOR ss = 1 TO 15: READ u, k
kk = 9.35 * (27 / k)
' PRINT kk, k, u
CIRCLE (750 - (kk * 50), 400 - (u * 2.5)), 2, 12
NEXT ss
' END
COLOR 12
LOCATE 23, 24: PRINT "Start"
COLOR 7
LOCATE 7, 35: PRINT "The anisotropy (per graph)"
LOCATE 8, 4: PRINT "is multiplied by 5000 before it becomes obvious."

LOCATE 10, 4: PRINT "True velocity at 1/pi meter disc diameter."
LOCATE 13, 4: PRINT "Effective velocity at 1/pi meter disc diameter."

lin = 6.2 'Set these numbers to whatever you require.
'Rotation rate required to overcome bearing resistance (linear scale).
squ = 4.1
'Rotation rate required to overcome bearing resistance(squared scale).

s = 10
aa: rps = 200 / s 'Start point is 20 revs per second.
v = rps 'Velocity is rps m/sec at 1 meter disc circumference.
gu = ((c + v) ^ 2 / c ^ 2) * g
gd = ((c - v) ^ 2 / c ^ 2) * g
ans = (gu - gd) / 2
ani = ans * 5000 ' Anisotropy is multiplied by 5000 for the graph.

rpx = rps - lin 'Effective rotation.
'This applies at a circumference of 1 meter.

an = 1 - (rps * ani * 2.5) ' 2.5 pixels = 1 second.

LOCATE 7, 3: PRINT ans; "m/sec^2."
LOCATE 11, 3: PRINT rps; "m/sec. "
LOCATE 14, 3: PRINT rpx; "m/sec. "

CIRCLE ((750 - (rps * 50)), 400 - ((1 / rpx) * an * 130)), 0, 10
CIRCLE ((750 - (rps * 50)), 400 - (1 / rpx) * 130), 0, 9

FOR t = 1 TO 5000: NEXT t 'Timer.
s = s + .05
IF s > 32.4 THEN GOTO ab
GOTO aa

ab: LINE (750 - (lin * 50), 10)-(750 - (lin * 50), 450), 9
COLOR 12
LOCATE 18, 10: PRINT "Test results using the point-cavity"
LOCATE 19, 10: PRINT "axle (temperature controlled)."
END

ac: LOCATE 4, 1: FOR f = 1 TO 3: READ f\$: PRINT " "; f\$: NEXT f
RETURN

DATA "The anisotropy is effective only beyond the resistance break"
DATA "point, but is calculated from the beginning of rotation."
DATA "The gravity anisotropy generated at 1/pi meter diameter is"

DATA 11.3,24,12.7,25,13.7,26,17,27,19.2,28,22.6,29,25.4,30
DATA 28.5,31,31.6,32,36,33,41.2,34,49.6,35,57,36,84,37,263,38
'Temperature controlled. Accessible axle end is a needle point
'and the internal end is a cavity (all hardened).

-----

Max Keon
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