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clusardi2k@aol.com science forum beginner
Joined: 20 Oct 2005
Posts: 16

Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2006 11:55 am Post subject:
What is an integrator with a variable gain, and how to implement in C (Min/Max Limiters and One Frame Delays)



Can you tell me everything there is to know about these to a C
programmer?
How would they be implemented in the C language? I would like intuitive
explanations. How would you explain them to a highschool student?
I think I've seen these in conversations on control theory. Is the
integrator
that 1/S stuff?
In books, I saw descriptions of integrators. I saw two definitions of
what I
assume to be the same thing. They used examples such as these two:
(1) If you take the Fourier (or maybe Laplace) Transform of equation
described via Circuits 101 steps and you have a term 1/S then that's an
integrator?
(2) It's an actual mathematical integration operation being performed
to determine the output voltage of a circuit?
What about MIN/MAX limiters, and one frame delays? What are they?
How would they be implemented in C?
Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a minimum function in a computer language?
Where a value under consideration would pass through the gate if it's
between the min and max inclusive? Otherwise, a default value is
output.
Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a hard limiter. A hard limiter will output 1
if input
is positive, and output 1 if input is negative. Can this be
implemented in
the C computer language with a "sign" function?
Are one frame delays a register that holds the value until the time of
the delay is over? What is a frame?
Help with intuitive explanations of these,
Chris Lusardi 

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Ian Parker science forum Guru Wannabe
Joined: 15 Jul 2005
Posts: 100

Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2006 1:47 pm Post subject:
Re: What is an integrator with a variable gain, and how to implement in C (Min/Max Limiters and One Frame Delays)



Chris L wrote:
Quote:  Can you tell me everything there is to know about these to a C
programmer?
How would they be implemented in the C language? I would like intuitive
explanations. How would you explain them to a highschool student?
I think I've seen these in conversations on control theory. Is the
integrator
that 1/S stuff?
In books, I saw descriptions of integrators. I saw two definitions of
what I
assume to be the same thing. They used examples such as these two:
(1) If you take the Fourier (or maybe Laplace) Transform of equation
described via Circuits 101 steps and you have a term 1/S then that's an
integrator?
(2) It's an actual mathematical integration operation being performed
to determine the output voltage of a circuit?
What about MIN/MAX limiters, and one frame delays? What are they?
How would they be implemented in C?
Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a minimum function in a computer language?
Where a value under consideration would pass through the gate if it's
between the min and max inclusive? Otherwise, a default value is
output.
Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a hard limiter. A hard limiter will output 1
if input
is positive, and output 1 if input is negative. Can this be
implemented in
the C computer language with a "sign" function?
Are one frame delays a register that holds the value until the time of
the delay is over? What is a frame?
Help with intuitive explanations of these,
Chris Lusardi

i = sqrt(1). Note that we obtain real functions where C(k) =C*(Nk)
where * denotes the complex conjugate.
In the case of a Fourier transform you can readily
integrate/differentiate.
exp(ikx) > ikexp(ikx) on differentiation and exp(ikx)/ik on
integration. Hence differentiation/integration is a trivial function.
In general.
A simple C program would be simple summation. In control theory you
have something called a "tranfer function". This is a juju word in
control theory. The simple way of looking at it in high school Physics
is to say that we have a fairly large aircraft and we perform rapid
movements on the control stick. Quite clearly a large aircraft cannot
move, it has too much intertia. To find out how a plane behaves you
need.
T(k)I(k)exp(ikx) where T(k) represents the transfer function and I(k)
the impulse applied. We obtain I(k) by taking the Fourier Tranform of
the control signals appied. Because a system is essentially low pass
control signals in an autopilot are often bang bang (0 or 1) and
applied fast. This is not noticed by the crew or passengers. 

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