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clusardi2k@aol.com
science forum beginner

Joined: 20 Oct 2005
Posts: 16

Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2006 11:55 am    Post subject: What is an integrator with a variable gain, and how to implement in C (Min/Max Limiters and One Frame Delays)

Can you tell me everything there is to know about these to a C
programmer?
How would they be implemented in the C language? I would like intuitive
explanations. How would you explain them to a highschool student?

I think I've seen these in conversations on control theory. Is the
integrator
that 1/S stuff?

In books, I saw descriptions of integrators. I saw two definitions of
what I
assume to be the same thing. They used examples such as these two:

(1) If you take the Fourier (or maybe Laplace) Transform of equation
described via Circuits 101 steps and you have a term 1/S then that's an

integrator?

(2) It's an actual mathematical integration operation being performed
to determine the output voltage of a circuit?

What about MIN/MAX limiters, and one frame delays? What are they?
How would they be implemented in C?

Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a minimum function in a computer language?
Where a value under consideration would pass through the gate if it's
between the min and max inclusive? Otherwise, a default value is
output.

Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a hard limiter. A hard limiter will output 1
if input
is positive, and output -1 if input is negative. Can this be
implemented in
the C computer language with a "sign" function?

Are one frame delays a register that holds the value until the time of
the delay is over? What is a frame?

Help with intuitive explanations of these,
Chris Lusardi
Ian Parker
science forum Guru Wannabe

Joined: 15 Jul 2005
Posts: 100

Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2006 1:47 pm    Post subject: Re: What is an integrator with a variable gain, and how to implement in C (Min/Max Limiters and One Frame Delays)

Chris L wrote:
 Quote: Can you tell me everything there is to know about these to a C programmer? How would they be implemented in the C language? I would like intuitive explanations. How would you explain them to a highschool student? I think I've seen these in conversations on control theory. Is the integrator that 1/S stuff? In books, I saw descriptions of integrators. I saw two definitions of what I assume to be the same thing. They used examples such as these two: (1) If you take the Fourier (or maybe Laplace) Transform of equation described via Circuits 101 steps and you have a term 1/S then that's an integrator? (2) It's an actual mathematical integration operation being performed to determine the output voltage of a circuit? What about MIN/MAX limiters, and one frame delays? What are they? How would they be implemented in C? Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a minimum function in a computer language? Where a value under consideration would pass through the gate if it's between the min and max inclusive? Otherwise, a default value is output. Is a MIN/MAX limiter like a hard limiter. A hard limiter will output 1 if input is positive, and output -1 if input is negative. Can this be implemented in the C computer language with a "sign" function? Are one frame delays a register that holds the value until the time of the delay is over? What is a frame? Help with intuitive explanations of these, Chris Lusardi

i = sqrt(-1). Note that we obtain real functions where C(k) =C*(N-k)
where * denotes the complex conjugate.

In the case of a Fourier transform you can readily
integrate/differentiate.

exp(ikx) -> ikexp(ikx) on differentiation and exp(ikx)/ik on
integration. Hence differentiation/integration is a trivial function.
In general.

A simple C program would be simple summation. In control theory you
have something called a "tranfer function". This is a juju word in
control theory. The simple way of looking at it in high school Physics
is to say that we have a fairly large aircraft and we perform rapid
movements on the control stick. Quite clearly a large aircraft cannot
move, it has too much intertia. To find out how a plane behaves you
need.

T(k)I(k)exp(ikx) where T(k) represents the transfer function and I(k)
the impulse applied. We obtain I(k) by taking the Fourier Tranform of
the control signals appied. Because a system is essentially low pass
control signals in an autopilot are often bang bang (0 or 1) and
applied fast. This is not noticed by the crew or passengers.

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