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Compton effect is a Doppler effect



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2 Compton effect is a Doppler effect
Ed 05.07.19 
Abstract

An electromagnetic wave with the wavelength L, which has some
energy, descends on an electron and makes it move in the same direction
of propagation of the wave. The wave makes the moving electron
oscillate
with a lower frequency. A very much simple analysis shows that this
moving
oscillating electron radiates, in the direction making angle T with the
direction of the incident wave, an electromagnetic wave which its
wavelength is bigger by a factor proportional to L(1cosT).
I. Introduction

When an electromagnetic wave descends on a target, bound electrons of
the
target are made to oscillate with the same frequency of the incident
wave. These oscillating electrons radiate electromagnetic waves in
every
direction with the same frequency of their oscillation.
Further to these radiations, it is observed in practice that there is
another electromagnetic wave with a wavelength longer than the
wavelength of the incident wave. Difference between the wavelengths
of this wave and the incident wave is different in different
directions being proportional to the factor 1cosT in which T is the
scattering angle (ie the angle relative to the line of propagation
of the incident wave in which the detector sees the target).
The empirical linear proportion of the above difference of the
wavelengths to the factor 1cosT is justified by Compton's
reasoning in the form of
<delta>L=L'L=(h/(m0c))(1cosT) (1)
in which it is assumed that the electromagnetic wave in the form of
photon hits the electron and causes its recoiling.
What is intended by this article is obtaining the abovementioned
empirical linear proportion in a simple classical manner. The use of
this act is that firstly no longer we can consider the Compton effect
as a quantum (and relativistic) phenomenon and recognize it among
the phenomena which only the quantum (or relativistic) physics is able
to justify them probably, and secondly the proportion of <delta>L
to L will appear absence of which in Compton's reasoning has been
always surprising!
II. The reasoning

Since an electromagnetic beam incident on a target has energy, it
causes
that the relatively free valence electrons of the target start moving
into the target in the direction of propagation of the wave. Indeed we
can
say that the beam gives energy to the gas molecules adjacent to the
target causing their warmth or in fact local increase of their mobility
which in turn causes much impacts of them on the target. A part of
these
impacts is transferred to the free electrons of the target and causes
them
to move towards the inside of the target in the direction of the wave
propagation. It is obvious that, when the incident beam is normal
to the target surface, since these impacts are in all possible
directions,
the mean effect of them will be the motion of the free electrons of the
target in the direction of the incident beam. In fact motion of the
electrons in this manner produces a kind of local closed electric
current
which is not concerned here. (We must also believe in such a current in
Compton's reasoning produced by the recoiling electrons moving
inwards.)
The wave incident on the target not only makes the bound electrons of
the target oscillate making scattered waves with the same wavelength
of the beam, but also makes the free electrons moving towards the
inside of the target oscillate. We are to study the mechanism of the
oscillation of the free electrons and the wavelengths produced by
them in different directions.
/'
/,
i s ___/__
,,  /'
/ \ /'T angle
/\/*'====>
\ / e v
`'
Fig. 1
The wave i with the wavelength L descends on the electron e which is
moving in the same direction of the wave i with the speed v. We want
to obtain the oscillation frequency that the electron gains from the
wave i incident on it. The speed of propagation of the wave i is c.
Then, for obtaining the above mentioned oscillation frequency, we can
suppose that the electron is stationary but the wave i descends on it
with the speed cv. Therefore, the frequency received by the electron
will be (cv)/L.
Now we have an electron moving with the velocity v and oscillating with
the frequency (cv)/L. It is obvious that such an oscillating electron
radiates electromagnetic wave. We want to obtain the wavelength of this
radiated wave in the direction related to the angle T.
Since the electron has the speed v in the direction of propagation of
the wave i, the situation is as if it has the speed vcosT in the
direction related to the angle T. Now it is sufficient to see which
wavelength will be radiated in the direction of motion (ie Tdirection)
by an electron moving with the speed vcosT and oscillating with the
frequency (cv)/L. Since the speed of this radiated wave is also c,
the situation is as if the electron is stationary and while it is
oscillating with the frequency (cv)/L, radiates a wave with the speed
cvcosT in the Tdirection. It is obvious that the wavelength of such
a wave is L'=(cvcosT)/((cv)/L)=((cvcosT)/(cv))L.
Now we can calculate <delta>L=L'L. The result will be
<delta>L=(vL/(cv))(1cosT) (2)
As we see <delta>L is directly proportional to the wavelength of the
incident wave (L) too. If accurate experiments indicates dependence
of <delta>L to L, the only acceptable reasoning will be the one
presented in this article not Compton's one.
It is noticeable that to the trying for justifying this phenomenon as a
Doppler effect has been pointed in some texts but in this incomplete
form that because of the Doppler effect the moving electron accepts
some
wavelength longer than the incident wavelength and then radiates just
this wavelength in all the directions. But, in the current opinion of
the
physicists, since the electron is accepting continuously the incident
wavelength from a stationary state to its final speed we must expect a
continuous distribution of scattered wavelengths from the incident
wavelength to the Dopplery lengthened wavelength (and since this is not
the case, the classical reasoning is not acceptable and the interaction
between the wave and the electron is impulsive not continuous). It was
only
sufficient that, as in fact has been done in this article, researchers
in this phenomenon would take one other step forwards and, as they
accept
that the moving electron accepts lower frequency, they would accept
that
this electron (accepting the lower frequency) would radiate just this
lower frequency only if it was motionless, but now that it is in
motion,
again, Doppler effect will be effective and it radiates different
wavelengths in different directions (according to what has come in this
article).
Hamid V. Ansari
My email address: hamid_vasigh_ansari<at>yahoo<dot>com
The contents of the book "Great mistakes of the physicists":
0 Physics without Modern Physics
1 Geomagnetic field reason
2 Compton effect is a Doppler effect
3 Deviation of light by Sun is optical
4 Stellar aberration with ether drag
5 SternGerlach experiment is not quantized
6 Electrostatics mistakes; Capacitance independence from dielectric
7 Surface tension theory; Glaring mistakes
8 Logical justification of the Hall effect
9 Actuality of the electric current
10 Photoelectric effect is not quantized
11 Wrong construing of the Boltzmann factor; E=h<nu> is wrong
12 Wavy behavior of electron beams is classical
13 Electromagnetic theory without relativity
14 Cylindrical wave, wave equation, and mistakes
15 Definitions of mass and force; A critique
16 FranckHertz experiment is not quantized
17 A wavebased polishing theory
01 What the electric conductor is
02 Why torque on stationary bodies is zero
03 Solution to fourcolor problem
04 A proof for Goldbach's conjecture 
