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Joined: 14 Jul 2006
|Posted: Fri Jul 14, 2006 7:26 pm Post subject:
Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Based Decision-Making Algorithms for CMM Measurement in Quality Control
FULL ARTICLE HERE http://amizo1.googlepages.com/FUZZY.htm
The sampling strategy for CMM inspection processes is a property of the
operator while the accuracy level is a property of the machine itself.
The advancements in hardware technology over the last few years allowed
for the production of a new generation of CMM machines that are capable
of high-precision measurements, yet, the inspection quality of these
machines are impaired by improper sampling strategy. This paper
discusses the research work done on the development of a fuzzy logic
based decision-making system as a means for soft computing for CMM
sampling strategies. It also presents the use of fuzzy logic to relate
the machine tool accuracy to the part measurement accuracy, and to make
a knowledge data base which contains machine tool accuracy and part
measurement data to be used for prediction of the sampling strategy for
subsequent parts. Finally, at the end of the paper, system
implementation, theoretical analysis, and experimental work are
presented and discussed.
Keywords: CMM measurement, Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy Knowledge Based Control
(FKBC), Sampling strategies
Ever since the introduction of Coordinate Measuring
Machines (CMMs), there has always been debate on the determination of
proper sampling strategies (sampling size and distribution) and the
accuracy level or uncertainty level. The sampling strategy is a
property of the operator i.e. different operators might use different
strategies to measure the same part while the accuracy level is a
property of the machine itself. The advancements in hardware
technology over the last few years allowed for the production of a new
generation of CMM machines that are capable of high-precision
measurements which have earned them popularity over traditional hard
gauging equipment. However, the inspection quality can be impaired by
an inappropriate data analysis technique or an improper sampling
strategy. Therefore, there is a need for automatic determination of
the sampling strategy based on proper data analysis.
The advancement of computer technology has led to
establishment of highly sophisticated data acquisition and analysis
systems. An outcome of this technology is the decision making
systems. These systems are software systems that can be developed to
carry out intelligent decision based on data collected during an
experiment. The decision making system architecture is indeed a
multi-dimensional problem that has to be tackled carefully. In order
to apply this technology to CMMs, the quantitative estimation of CMM
measurement error, evaluated with uncertainty as suggested by NIST,
which could be critical to make the exact accept/reject decision of a
machined part. In general, we are faced with attempting to measure a
part feature or true position using CMM. A sampling strategy and
fitting algorithm have to be adopted prior to completing this task.
Eventually, uncertainty theory and estimation technique are expected to
be used to give an estimation of the accuracy of the results. In
production coordinate measurement using CMMs, however, due to the
limitations in speed of most machines, much more limited sampling,
i.e., under-sampling, is desirable. Therefore difficulties are
introduced to the decision-making methodology of CMM sampling strategy,
algorithms and uncertainty estimation because of the following factors:
· The measurement system (CMM) contains systematic and random
· The feature deviates from ideal over a range of wavelengths
and amplitudes that are representative of manufacturing processes.
These deviations are usually unknown prior to accomplishing an
error-free measurement which is believed impossible from metrology
point of view.
· Algorithms are used to fit these measurement data that can
never be completely tested and, in some cases, are quite sensitive to
"outliers" [Orady, 1996].
· In production lines, efficiency is a major consideration.
It would be required to measure a part feature as quickly as possible,
i.e., with the minimum number of points. At the same time, the
measurement accuracy has to be controlled within an acceptable level.
Unfortunately, it is the CMM operator who faces these
difficulties. As a matter of fact, one can not expect him to deal with
all these difficulties because of his limited knowledge of coordinate
metrology and inability to relate the measurement to the accuracy of
the manufacturing process. This human-originated decision-making
procedure is recognized as one of the major uncertainty factors to the
practical CMM measurement in quality control.