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Taylor Francis science forum beginner
Joined: 18 Jul 2006
Posts: 1

Posted: Tue Jul 18, 2006 2:43 pm Post subject:
Logarithm



Does anyone know a formula for calculating a logarithm by hand? 

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Frederick Williams science forum addict
Joined: 19 Nov 2005
Posts: 97

Posted: Tue Jul 18, 2006 2:50 pm Post subject:
Re: Logarithm



Taylor Francis wrote:
Quote: 
Does anyone know a formula for calculating a logarithm by hand?

What base?

Remove "antispam" and ".invalid" for email address. 

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Lynn Kurtz science forum Guru
Joined: 02 May 2005
Posts: 603


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Pontypridd Chess Club (Da science forum beginner
Joined: 18 Jul 2006
Posts: 1

Posted: Tue Jul 18, 2006 8:47 pm Post subject:
Re: Logarithm



For finding logs to the base e there are a couple of formulae depending on
the size of x. For example, provided x is greater than 0.5 the following
series could be used:
(x1) / x + (x1)^2 / 2x^2 + (x1)^3 / 3x^3 ...
Unfortunately, the larger x is the more terms it takes to find a reasonable
approximation.
"Taylor Francis" <radiulo@gmail.com> wrote in message
news:8s6vg.78106$ZW3.59999@dukeread04...
> Does anyone know a formula for calculating a logarithm by hand? 

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Mike1161 science forum addict
Joined: 14 Oct 2005
Posts: 50

Posted: Wed Jul 19, 2006 12:39 am Post subject:
Re: Logarithm



In article <8s6vg.78106$ZW3.59999@dukeread04>, radiulo@gmail.com says...
Quote:  Does anyone know a formula for calculating a logarithm by hand?

To calculate n = log[base k] of X.
Step 1:
Set n = 0. Set p = 1
Step 2
While X > k do the following
Divide X by k
Increment n
Step 3
Repeat
Set k to sqrt(k)
Divide p by 2
if X > k then do the following
Divide X by k
Add p to n
until p < acceptable error
n will be the required logarithm.
For example:
Lets say we want to know the value of log2(19) = n.
n X k p
0 19 2 1 < step 1 complete
1 9.5 2 1
2 4.75 2 1
3 2.375 2 1
4 1.1875 2 1 < step 2 complete
4 1.1875 1.414214 0.5
4 1.1875 1.189207 0.25
4.125 1.088942 1.090508 0.125
4.1875 1.042775 1.044274 0.0625
.... ... ... ...
at which point we know the log{base 2] of 19 is approximately 4.1875 to an accuracy of 0.0625.
So all it involves is addition, division and sqrt calculation, all of which can be done easily with a pencil and paper.
Mike 

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alex.lupas@gmail.com science forum beginner
Joined: 23 Feb 2006
Posts: 47

Posted: Thu Jul 20, 2006 5:17 am Post subject:
Re: Logarithm



Taylor Francis wrote:
Quote:  Does anyone know a formula for calculating a logarithm by hand?
============ 
Aim: To find C:=log_{A}(B) where 1<B<A :
one defines two sequences
a_2,a_3,...
n_1,n_2,... (=positive integers) ,
by means of relations
(a_i)^{n_i} < a_{i1} < a_{i})^{1+n_i}
a_{i+1}:= a_{i1}/(a_i)^{n_i}
a_0:= A , A_1:=B .
Then
C=1/(n_1+1/(n_2+ 1/n_3+... ))  continuous fraction.
This is Shanks algorithm: see
D.Shanks ,"A logarithm algorithm", MTAC 8,no.46(1954)6064. 

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